High-end: Gold Titanium
Credit to MatPat and kneegrow from Comic Vine. This is kneegrow's calculation, not mine.
- MatPat from Film Theory calculates this feat to be 3,456,000 pounds of force from Thor’s hands alone, or 1,728 tons, though I think he overlooked a couple of major things.
- The article he mentions does say that the gold titanium alloy is 3-4 times stronger than most steels.
- "It is about 3-4 times harder than most steels," said Emilia Morosan, the lead scientist on a new study in Science Advances that describes the properties of a 3-to-1 mixture of titanium and gold with a specific atomic structure that imparts hardness."
- That comment is a bit vague because there are many different steels out there with many differing strengths, however in that same article, Morosan gives a definitive, straightforward answer for the strength of the gold titanium alloy.
- "It's four times harder than pure titanium, which is what's currently being used in most dental implants and replacement joints."
- Yield strength is the amount of force per unit area that a material can withstand without permanent deformation. This article states that one grade of pure titanium, Grade 4, popular in medical implants, has a yield strength of at least 480 megapascals, or 69618.1 pounds per square inch.
- Since the gold titanium alloy is 4 times stronger than commercially pure titanium, it’s yield strength would be 278,472.4 lbs per square inch.
- I determined the area of the hand that MatPat used in his video by dividing the amount of force he concluded on, 3,456,000 lbs, by the yield strength per square inch, 144,000, to get a hand area of 24 square inches. I measured my own hand to make sure, and it was roughly correct.
- So, if Iron Man’s armor has a yield strength of 278,472.4 psi, and Thor’s hand area is 24 in^2, Thor exerted 6,683,337.6 lbs of force, or 3,341.6 tons from a single hand alone.
Converting that to kg that's 3 031 448.53 kg, or Class M. So even when weakened by dark energy, Thor (and those who scale) is still easily Class M.
According to this video, a gold titanium alloy suit would be too heavy and inconvenient for flying, and claims that the most suitable metal for Iron Man's suit in real life would use a nickel-titanium alloy called "nitinol" since it is strong and light.
The yield strength of nitinol can go up to 690 MPa, or 100 076 psi.
100076*24 = 2 401 824 pounds, or 1 089 449.04 kg. Still Class M