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Introduction

Throughout fiction and real life, there have been numerous feats demonstrating a certain character's or object's destructive power. This page's purpose is to consolidate calculations for those feats for better convenience in determining an object's or character's Attack Potency or Durability. Please note, these calculations are typically low-ends or averages and may not be a one-size-fits-all due to outliers. I.E., freezing of an average human will most likely not apply to one that is exceedingly large or incredibly diminutive.

Impact Feats

Feats concerning things impacting characters or characters impacting things.

Getting hit by a vehicle

Description: These calculations are about the durability a character needs to have in order to tank getting hit by various vehicles. It is differentiated between getting hit and sent flying and getting hit and remaining in place, like when they are getting slammed into a solid wall.

Requirements: The vehicle in question has to be approximately as heavy or heavier than the reference vehicle used. These weights are 1500 kg for the car, 4082.3 kg for the pickup truck, 10,659.421 kg for the (school) bus and 36,287 kg for the semi-truck. For the New York subway train 38646.0699 kg per car were used. Average versions of these types of vehicles may be assumed to fulfill these conditions. The subway train must have 8 or 10 cars respectively and have been driving for long enough to reach its average speed or drive with top speed, for the respective ends. Other vehicles must be shown to reasonably fulfill the assumed speed they were going, for example by looking at the typical speed limit for the street they are on. For the 'slammed into a wall'-ends, the character has to tank the vehicle impact without moving from the place they are standing.

Results: The values for getting hit and beings sent flying:

25mph 45mph 60mph 70mph
Car 3990.47 J (Street level) 12929.12 J (Street level+) 22985.1069 J (Wall level) 31285.284 J (Wall level)
Pickup Truck 4225.45244 J (Street level) 13690.4659045 J (Street level+) 24338.6060524 J (Wall level) 33127.5471269 J (Wall level)
Bus 4314.74851771 J (Street level) 13979.7851974 J (Street level+) 24852.951462 J (Wall level) 33827.63 J (Wall level)
Semi-Truck 4354.787 J (Street level) 14109.50864 J (Street level+) 25083.5709154 J (Wall level) 34141.5270794 J (Wall level)

The values for getting slammed into a wall / not moving are:

25mph 45mph 60mph 70mph
Car 9.3677232e4 J (Wall level) 303,514.23168 J (Wall level) 539,580.85632 J (Wall level) 734,429.49888 J (Wall level)
Pickup Truck 254,945.709462 J (Wall level) 826,024.098658 J (Wall level) 1,468,487.2865 J (Wall level) 1,998,774.362185216 J (Wall level)
Bus 665,696.702668 J (Wall level) 2,156,857.31665 J (Wall level) 3,834,413.00737 J (Wall level) 5,219,062.14892063232 J (Wall level)
Semi-Truck 2,266,177.145056 J (Wall level) 7,342,413.94998144 J (Wall level) 13,055,127.03695416 J (Wall level+) 17,766,828.81723904 J (Wall level+)

The subway train ends are:

  • 8 cars & average speed: 9351396.1820257 Joules, Wall level
  • 10 cards & average speed: 11689245.235094 Joules, Wall level+
  • 8 cars & top speed: 94480113.721716 Joules/0.02258128 Tons of TNT, Small Building level
  • 10 cards & top speed: 118100142.22854 Joules/0.0282266 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Calculations:

If not slammed into a wall

When being hit by a car, the linear momentum of the car+person system needs to remain the same. Linear momentum is m*v

The values vary based on the vehicle and the speed of course.

For example, assuming the human is 70 kg, the car is 1500 kg, and that the car's speed is 11.176 m/s:

Final Speed = (MassCar*Initial Speed):(MassPerson+MassCar)

Using the values above this is 10.677707006369426751592356687898 m/s.

KE of the person is 3990.4699419854760842224836707371 Joules

Street level

Getting Hit by a Car

25 mph or 11.176 m/s (Average suburb speed): ((1500*11.176)/(70+1500))^2*70*0.5 = 3990.47 Joules, Street level

45 mph or 20.1168 m/s (Daily City travel speed): ((1500*20.1168)/(70+1500))^2*70*0.5 = 12929.12 Joules, Street level+

60 mph or 26.8224 m/s (Traditional interstate travel speed): ((1500*26.8224)/(70+1500))^2*70*0.5 = 22985.1069 Joules, Wall level

70 mph or 31.2928 m/s (Highway speed limit): ((1500*31.2928 m/s)/(70+1500))^2*70*0.5 = 31285.284 J, Wall level

Getting hit by a Pickup Truck

The average pickup trucks can weigh over 4082.3 kg.

25 mph or 11.176 m/s (Average suburb speed) = ((4082.3*11.176)/(70+4082.3))^2*70*0.5 = 4225.45244 Joules, Street level

45 mph or 20.1168 m/s (Daily City travel speed) = ((4082.3*20.1168)/(70+4082.3))^2*70*0.5 = 13690.4659045 Joules, Street level+

60 mph or 26.8224 m/s (Traditional interstate travel speed) = ((4082.3*26.8224)/(70+4082.3))^2*70*0.5 = 24338.6060524 Joules, Wall level

70 mph or 31.2928 m/s (Highway speed limit) = ((4082.3*31.2928)/(70+4082.3))^2*70*0.5 = 33127.5471269 Joules, - Wall level

Getting Hit by a Bus

The average "traditional-sized" school bus weighs in at 10,659.421 kg.

25 mph or 11.176 m/s (Average suburb speed) = ((10659.421*11.176)/(70+10659.421))^2*70*0.5 = 4314.74851771 Joules, Street level

45 mph or 20.1168 m/s (Daily City travel speed) = ((10659.421*20.1168)/(70+10659.421))^2*70*0.5 = 13979.7851974 Joules, Street level+

60 mph or 26.8224 m/s (Traditional interstate travel speed) = ((10659.421*26.8224)/(70+10659.421))^2*70*0.5 = 24852.951462 Joules, Wall level

70 mph or 31.2928 m/s (Highway speed limit) = ((10659.421*31.2928)/(70+10659.421))^2*70*0.5 = 33827.63 Joules, Wall level

Getting hit by a Semi Truck

The average semi-truck can weigh in excess of 36,287 kg.

25 mph or 11.176 m/s (Average suburb speed) = ((36287*11.176)/(70+36287))^2*70*0.5 = 4354.787 Joules, Street level

45 mph or 20.1168 m/s (Daily City travel speed) = ((36287*20.1168)/(70+1500))^2*70*0.5 = 14109.50864 Joules, Street level+

60 mph or 26.8224 m/s (Traditional interstate travel speed) = ((36287*26.8224)/(70+36287))^2*70*0.5 = 25083.5709154 Joules, Wall level

70 mph or 31.2928 m/s (Highway speed limit) = ((36287*31.2928)/(70+36287))^2*70*0.5 = 34141.5270794 Joules, Wall level

If slammed into a wall

However, it should be noted that the above calculations assume that the person is sent flying by the car. In some odd cases in fiction, the car stops, and the character tanks the attack. Or in some cases, a character is slammed into a wall by a car. In these cases, the entire KE of the car scales to the character's durability.

KE = 1/2*mass*velocity^2 (Where mass is in kilograms and velocity is in meters per second)

Getting Hit by a Car

0.5*1500*11.176^2 = 93677.232 Joules - Wall level

This value assumes that this is an average-sized car weighing in at 1500 kg and traveling at 25 mph/11.176 m/s.

45 mph or 20.1168 m/s (Daily City travel speed) = 0.5(1500) * 20.1168^2 = 303514.23168 Joules, Wall level

60 mph or 26.8224 m/s (Traditional interstate travel speed) = 0.5(1500) * 26.8224^2 = 539580.85632 Joules, - Wall level

70 mph or 31.2928 m/s (Highway speed limit) = 0.5(1500) * 31.2928^2 = 734429.49888 Joules, Wall level

Here are some values for other vehicle types and the like.

Getting hit by a Pickup Truck

The average pickup trucks can weigh over 4082.3 kg.

25 mph or 11.176 m/s (Average suburb speed) = 0.5(4,082.3) * 11.176^2 = 254945.709462 Joules, Wall level

45 mph or 20.1168 m/s (Daily City travel speed) = 0.5(4,082.3) * 20.1168^2 = 826024.098658 Joules, Wall level

60 mph or 26.8224 m/s (Traditional interstate travel speed) = 0.5(4,082.3) * 26.8224^2 = 1468487.2865 Joules, Wall level

70 mph or 31.2928 m/s (Highway speed limit) = 0.5(4,082.3) * 31.2928^2 = 1998774.362185216 Joules, Wall level

Getting Hit by a Bus

The average "traditional-sized" school bus weighs in at 10,659.421 kg.

25 mph or 11.176 m/s (Average suburb speed) = 0.5(10,659.421) * 11.176^2 = 665696.702668 Joules, Wall level

45 mph or 20.1168 m/s (Daily City travel speed) = 0.5(10,659.421) * 20.1168^2 = 2156857.31665 Joules, Wall level

60 mph or 26.8224 m/s (Traditional interstate travel speed) = 0.5(10,659.421) * 26.8224^2 = 3834413.00737 Joules, - Wall level

70 mph or 31.2928 m/s (Highway speed limit) = 0.5(10,659.421) * 31.2928^2 = 5219062.14892063232 Joules, Wall level

Getting hit by a Semi Truck

The average semi-truck can weigh in excess of 36,287 kg.

25 mph or 11.176 m/s (Average suburb speed) = 0.5(36,287) * 11.176^2 = 2266177.145056 Joules, Wall level

45 mph or 20.1168 m/s (Daily City travel speed) = 0.5(36,287) * 20.1168^2 = 7342413.94998144 Joules, Wall level

60 mph or 26.8224 m/s (Traditional interstate travel speed) = 0.5(36,287) * 26.8224^2 = 13055127.03695416 Joules, Wall level+

70 mph or 31.2928 m/s (Highway speed limit) = 0.5(36,287) * 31.2928^2 = 17766828.81723904 Joules, Wall level+

Getting hit by a Subway Train

The weight of a subway car depends on the country, based on tracks from Brazil they can be anywhere from 16 to 30 tons. In Mexico they weigh 28.9 tons.

For this, let's use the NYC subway train:

Average speed

8 cars:

38646.0699 x 8 = 309168.559 kg

SubwaytrainKE1.PNG

9351396.1820257 J, Wall level

10 cars:

38646.0699 x 10 = 386460.699 kg

SubwaytrainKE2.PNG

11689245.235094 Joules, Wall level

Top speed

8 cars:

38646.0699 x 8 = 309168.559 kg

SubwaytrainKE3.PNG

94480113.721716 Joules/0.02258 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

10 cars:

38646.0699 x 10 = 386460.699 kg

SubwaytrainKE4.PNG

118100142.22854 Joules/0.0282266 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Falling from Great Heights

Description: This calculation finds the durability a human would need to have in order to survive falling from so high that it reaches terminal velocity.

Requirements: To use this result the character has to be at least 70 kg and should be roughly human shaped. The character needs to fall from a height of at least 143.3m and not be slowed down by anything other than the air resistance working on his own body.

Results: The character would withstand 98315 Joules on impact with the ground and hence have Wall level durability.

Calculation:

The energy of a falling object can be calculated by gravitational potential energy, or PE = mgh. However, in many cases in fiction the height is so great that it reaches terminal velocity (more details about that).

The terminal velocity of a human being is around 53 m/s. Assuming the person is 70 kg:

KE = 0.5*70*53^2 = 98315 Joules, Wall level

Approximating that border without air resistance: 53 m/s / 9.8 m/s^2 = 5.4081632653061224s drop time.

r = (1/2)*a*t^2 gives the distance covered by such a long fall.

(1/2)*9.8*5.4081632653061224^2 = 143.316326530612242302 m

Therefore, one would have to drop 143.3 meters before this calculation applies.

A Human-Shaped Hole

Description: This calculates the Attack potency necessary to slam a human into a wall so hard that a human-sized hole is left in the wall. Alternatively, it also equates to the durability of tanking the attack.

Requirements: The hole in the wall has to have the area of a front facing human. Since such feats are often gag-feats particular attention has to be given to consistency of the result. The appropriate amount of destruction for destruction values higher than regular fragmentation needs to be proven. Whether the material of the wall is stone or steel has to be considered. Unusually thin or thick walls may also change the result.

Results:

  • Stone Wall:
    • Fragmentation: 1589350 Joules, Wall level
    • Violent Fragmentation: 13708143.75 Joules, Wall level+
    • Pulverization: 42515112.5 Joules/0.010161 Tons of TNT, Small Building level
  • Steel Wall:
    • Fragmentation: 41323100 Joules,0.009876 Tons of TNT, Small Building level
    • Violent Fragmentation: 112943184 Joules/0.0269941 Tons of TNT, Small Building level
    • Pulverization: 59600625 to 198668750 Joules, Average of 129134687.5 Joules/0.030863 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Calculation:

A common gag in fiction is that someone gets slammed towards a wall so hard that a human-sized hole is left.

The average human body has a surface area of 1.9 m^2. Divide that in half and you get 0.95m^2, or 9,500 cm^2.

Assuming that the average human head's length (meaning, front to back) is 7/8ths of the average human head's height (23.9 cm). That will be used for the depth of the crater.

7/8ths of 23.9 is 20.9125.

20.9125*9500 = 1.9866875e5 cm^3.

For fragmentation (8 j/cm^3):

198,668.75 * 8 = 1.589350e6 Joules, Wall level

For violent fragmentation (69 j/cm^3):

198,668.75 * 69 = 1.370814375e7 Joules, Wall level+

For pulverization (214 j/cm^3)

198.668.75 * 214 = 4.25151125e+7 Joules, Small Building level

If the wall is made out of steel:

Fragmentation (208 j/cm^3):

198,668.75 * 208 = 4.1323100e7 Joules, or 0.009 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Violent fragmentation (568.5 j/cm^3):

198,668.75 * 568.5 = 1.12943184e8 Joules, or 0.027 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Pulverization (300-1000 J/cm^3)

198,668.75 * 300 or 1000 = 5.9600625e+7 to 1.9866875e+8 Joules, Small Building level

Getting hit by cannonballs

Using the standardized values, a cannonball weights 32 lbs. (14.514 kg) and has a speed in between 1250 feet per second (381 m/s), 1450 ft/s (441.96 m/s) and 1700 ft/s (518.16 m/s).

The formula for kinetic energy is as follows

KE = 0.5 * m * v^2, where mass = kg and v = m/s

Putting the values into this KE calculator, we get the following:

6 lbs. (2.72155 kg)

Low end (381 m/s) = 197.531 kilojoule, 9-B, (Wall level)

Mid end (441.96 m/s) = 217.7 kilojoule, 9-B (Wall level)

High end (518.16 m/s) = 265.8 kilojoule, 9-B (Wall level)

12 lbs. (5.44311 kg)

Low-end (381 m/s) = 395 kilojoule, 9-B (Wall level)

Mid-end (441.96 m/s) = 531.6 kilojoule, 9-B (Wall level)

High-end (518.16 m/s) = 730.71 kilojoule, 9-B (Wall level)

18 lbs. (8.164663 kg)

Low-end (381 m/s) = 592.6 kilojoule, 9-B (Wall level)

Mid-end (441.96 m/s) = 797.4 kilojoule, 9-B (Wall level)

High-end (518.16 m/s) = 1.09606 megajoule, 9-B (Wall level)

24 lbs. (10.88622 kg)

Low-end (381 m/s) = 790 kilojoule, 9-B (Wall level)

Mid-end (441.96 m/s) = 1.0632 megajoule, 9-B (Wall level)

High-end (518.16 m/s) = 1.46 megajoule, 9-B (Wall level)

32 lbs. (14.515 kg)

Low-end (381 m/s) = 1.05 megajoules, 9-B

Mid-end (441.96 m/s) = 1.41 megajoules, 9-B

High-end (518.16 m/s) = 1.94 megajoules, 9-B

42 lbs. (19.0509 kg)

Low-end (381 m/s) = 1.38 megajoule, 9-B (Wall level)

Mid-end (441.96 m/s) = 1.86 megajoule, 9-B (Wall level)

High-end (518.16 m/s) = 2.56 megajoule, 9-B (Wall level)

Surviving a Fall from Low-Earth Orbit

So, we want to calculate how much durability one would need to survive a fall from Low Earth orbit.

Low Earth orbit starts at 160km.

We will assume that a human like creature falls and that it starts at rest.

For the weight of the creature, I will assume 60 kg.

High End

The whole energy of the fall comes from the gravitational potential energy. So, we know that in total the kinetic energy on impact cannot be higher than the initial gravitational potential energy.

The potential energy is given by the formula GMm/r_1 - GMm/r_2, where M is the mass of earth, m is the mass of the object falling, r_1 is the initial distance from the center of the earth and r_2 is the final distance from the center of the earth. G is the gravitational constant.

Radius of earth is 6371000 m = r_2

  • r_2 + 160000m = r_1
  • G = 6.67408*10^-11
  • M = 5.972*10^24 kg
  • m = 60 kg

So, setting in we get:

(6.67408*(10^-11) * 5.972*(10^24) * 60)/6371000 - (6.67408*(10^-11) * 5.972*(10^24) * 60) / (6371000 + 160000) = 9.1959e7 J

Small Building level

Low End

The terminal velocity for a human is 53 m/s, near the ground.

So, while someone falling from great heights might initially have a higher speed when going towards the ground the speed will drop towards that value.

0.5*60*53^2 = 8.427e4 J

So, at terminal velocity this would only be low end Wall level.

What is Realistic?

The actual value would likely lie somewhere in between those two.

One could try to do a more accurate method using the drag equation and the barometric formula, even though I am not quite sure whether that would work (at some point of the fall we would likely talk about supersonic stuff which it usually is hard to get the needed values for).

For now, we would stay with Wall level for such a feat.

Also let us mention that this is only for low earth orbit falling. For higher altitudes the potential energy value would go closer to the kinetic energy when falling with escape velocity, while for lower it would mostly just stay the same (the realistic value would go towards to terminal velocity value) except for short falls where not even that much speed if attained.

Cutting Feats

Cutting a sword

https://www.japanese-sword-katana.jp/katana/1910-1053.htm

Destroying Blades

A knightly (or short) sword blade is typically 5.08 cm wide, and 0.48768 cm thick; a long sword blade is 2.810165975 cm wide, and .414 cm thick; a katana is typically 2.23 cm wide, and 0.7 cm thick

Fragmentation:

Slicing longsword with:

Longsword = 2.810165975*.414^2 = 0.4816512074688796 cc * 208 J/cc = 100.18345115352696 J (Athlete level)

Shortsword = 2.810165975*.414*2.54*.192 = 0.5673711614937759 cc * 208 J/cc = 118.01320159070538 J (Athlete level)

Katana = .7*.414*2.810165975 = 0.814386099585062 cc * 208 J/cc = 169.3923087136929 J (Athlete level)

Slicing shortsword with:

Longsword = 2.54^2*(.192*2)*.414 = 1.0256495616 cc * 208 J/cc = 213.3351088128 J (Athlete level)

Shortsword = 2.54^3*(.192^2*2) = 1.208185454592 cc * 208 J/cc = 251.30257455513603 J (Athlete level)

Katana = 2.54^2*(.192*2)*.7 = 1.73419008 cc * 208 J/cc = 360.71153664 J (Street level)

Slicing Katana with:

Longsword = .7*.414*2.23 = 0.646254 cc * 208 J/cc = 134.420832 J (Athlete level)

Shortsword = .7*2.54*.192*2.23 = 0.76126848 cc * 208 J/cc = 158.343 J (Athlete level)

Katana = .7^2*2.23 = 1.0927 cc * 208 J/cc = 227.2816 J (Athlete level)

Violent Fragmentation:

Slicing longsword with:

Longsword = 2.810165975*.414^2 = 0.4816512074688796 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 273.81871144605805 J (Athlete level+)

Shortsword = 2.810165975*.414*2.54*.192 = 0.5673711614937759 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 322.5505053092116 J (Street level)

Katana = .7*.414*2.810165975 = 0.814386099585062 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 462.97849761410777 J (Street level)

Slicing shortsword with:

Longsword = 2.54^2*(.192*2)*.414 = 1.0256495616 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 583.0817757696 J (Street level)

Shortsword = 2.54^3*(.192^2*2) = 1.208185454592 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 686.8534309355521 J (Street level)

Katana = 2.54^2*(.192*2)*.7 = 1.73419008 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 985.88706048 J (Street level)

Slicing Katana with:

Longsword = .7*.414*2.23 = 0.646254 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 367.395399 J (Street level)

Shortsword = .7*2.54*.192*2.23 = 0.76126848 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 432.78113088 J (Street level)

Katana = .7^2*2.23 = 1.0927 cc * 568.5 J/cc = 621.19995 J (Street level)

Pulverization:

Slicing longsword with:

Longsword = 2.810165975*.414^2 = 0.4816512074688796 cc * 1000 J/cc = 481.651207 J (Street level)

Shortsword = 2.810165975*.414*2.54*.192 = 0.5673711614937759 cc * 1000 J/cc = 567.37116 J (Street level)

Katana = .7*.414*2.810165975 = 0.814386099585062 cc * 1000 J/cc = 814.386099 J (Street level)

Slicing shortsword with:

Longsword = 2.54^2*(.192*2)*.414 = 1.0256495616 cc * 1000 J/cc = 1025.6495616 J (Street level)

Shortsword = 2.54^3*(.192^2*2) = 1.208185454592 cc * 1000 J/cc = 1208.185454592 J (Street level)

Katana = 2.54^2*(.192*2)*.7 = 1.73419008 cc * 1000 J/cc = 1734.19008 J (Street level)

Slicing Katana with:

Longsword = .7*.414*2.23 = 0.646254 cc * 1000 J/cc = 646.254 J (Street level)

Shortsword = .7*2.54*.192*2.23 = 0.76126848 cc * 1000 J/cc = 761.26848 J (Street level)

Katana = .7^2*2.23 = 1.0927 cc * 1000 J/cc = 1092.7 J (Street level)

Bone Breaking Feats

Breaking all the Bones of a Man's Body

On average, the weight of a man's bones is 15% of their body mass, which in of itself is 88.768027 Kilograms. 15% of that is 13.31520405 Kilograms.

The density of bone is 3.88 g/cm^3, which would mean that the total volume would be 13.31520405 divided by 0.00388, which equals 3431.75362113402 cm^3 for our volume.

To get the fragmentation values, we need to use the compressive strength of bones. To quote Wikipedia, "bone has a high compressive strength of about 170 MPa (1800 kgf/cm²), poor tensile strength of 104–121 MPa, and a very low shear stress strength (51.6 MPa)"

So, low end is 51.6, mid is 104, high is 170. Plugging those all into our volume gets us....

Low End: 1.77078.486850515432e5 Joules, Wall level

Mid End: 3.56902376598e5 Joules, Wall level

High End: 5.83398115592783e5 Joules, Wall level

Breaking a Human neck

Volume of a Vertebra

The vertebrae that make up the neck are the cervical vertebrae and are 7 vertebrae in total. However, due to finding info only for vertebra 3 through 7, the smallest one will be calced.

C3 pedicle: The pedicle is roughly a rectangular prism and there are two of them. 5.27 mm x 5.14 mm x 7.08 mm = 0.527 cm * 0.514 cm * 0.708 cm = 0.191781624 cm^3. 0.191781624 cm^3 * 2 = 0.383563248 cm^3

C3 vertebral body: The vertebral body is a cylinder. The mean height is 15.1 mm and the radius 7.34 mm = 2.55575 cc.

Energy to Fragment the C3 Vertebra

The shear strength of bones is 51.6 MPa or J/cc

(0.383563248 + 2.55575) x 51.6 = 151.6685635968 Joules, Athlete level

Keep in mind, this is just fragmenting most of the C3 vertebra. This does not take into account the lamina.

Breaking a Bone

The durability of a bone depends on the angle of attack.

A bone of a deceased 52-year-old woman only required 375 Joules of energy when the force was applied within five degrees of the orientation of the collagen fibers. But the force increased exponentially when they applied it at anything over 50 degrees away from that orientation, up to 9920 Joules when they applied a nearly perpendicular force.

So, breaking a bone would require 375-9920 Joules, depending on the angle of attack. That's Street level to Street level+.

Vaporization Feats

Vaporizing a Human

Conditions

https://www.thoughtco.com/chemical-composition-of-the-human-body-603995

Okay, First off. To vaporize a human thoroughly at once, let’s assume the temperature change is 1800°F or 982.22°C

The normal human body temperature range is typically stated as 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F) and we shall use 37°C as the average.

So the temperature change is by 945.22°C

A handy calculator

A handy specific heat calculator

A handy latent heat calculator

The average human is 62 kilograms.

STEP I

We will start with water.

Body water

65% of human mass is water, or 40.3 kilograms.

The heat capacity of water is 4182 Joules per kilogram at 20 °C

Plugging the values into this calculator

Heat energy spent to change temperature is 159,302,275 Joules

We will use this calculator to find the latent heat of the water, which says water has a latent heat of 2264.7057 kJ/kg.

Plugging in the mass of water gives us 91,267,612 Joules

Adding these two values together we get 250,569,887 Joules

STEP II

Average amount for body fat is 2.348 kilojoules per kilogram

Fat seems to be 17% of body mass, or 10.54 kilograms going by the numbers shown

Plugging it into the specific heat energy calculator, we get 23,392,229 Joules

STEP III

Protein makes up 16% of body mass, which means it makes up 9.92 kilograms of the body

Muscle has a heat capacity of 3.421 kilojoules per kilogram

Plugging it into the specific heat energy calculator, we get 32,077,288 Joules.

STEP IV

For minerals, it makes up 6% of body mass, or 3.72 kilograms.

We will bone for this, specifically cortical bone, which is 1.313 kilojoules per kilogram.

(ditto) we get 4,616,795 Joules

STEP V

Carbohydrates make up merely 1% of human weight, or 0.62 kilograms

Heat energy of sugar (carbohydrate) is 1.255 kilojoules per kilogram.

(ditto) we get 735,476 Joules

Conclusion

Adding them together, we get:

250,569,887 + 23,392,229 + 32,077,288 + 4,616,795 + 735,476= 311,391,675 Joules or 0.0744243965105 ton TNT (Small Building level)

As noted, we took values that were simplest and closest analogs, plus we did not include the latent heat from anything other than water.

Reducing a Human to char

In the case of reducing humans to just dry bone fragments instead of fully vaporizing them, crematoriums recommend a minimum starting temperature of 1400°F or 760°C. https://www.cremationresource.org/cremation/how-is-a-body-cremated.html

Conditions

https://www.thoughtco.com/chemical-composition-of-the-human-body-603995

Average body temperature being 98.6°F or 37°C,

wikipedia:Human body temperature

The temperature change is now by 723°C

The same heat capacity calculator

The average human is 62 kilograms

STEP I

We will start with water.

65% of human mass is water, or 40.3 kilograms.

The heat capacity of water is 4182 Joules per kilogram at 20 °C

Plugging the values into this calculator

Specific Heat energy is 121,850,516 Joules

We will use this calculator to find the latent heat of the water, which says water has a latent heat of 2264.7057 kJ/kg.

Plugging in the mass of water gives us 91,267,612 Joules

Adding these two values together we get 213,118,128 J

STEP II

Average amount for body fat is 2.348 kilojoules per kilogram

Fat seems to be 17% of body mass, or 10.54 kilograms going by the numbers shown

Plugging it into the specific heat energy calculator, we get 17,892,746.16 Joules

STEP III

Protein makes up 16% of body mass, which means it makes up 9.92 kilograms of the body

Muscle has a heat capacity of 3.421 kilojoules per kilogram

Plugging it into the specific heat energy calculator, we get 24,535,959.36 J.

STEP IV

For minerals, it makes up 6% of body mass, or 3.72 kilograms.

We will bone for this, specifically cortical bone, which is 1.313 kilojoules per kilogram.

(ditto) we get 3,531,392.28 J

STEP V

Carbohydrates make up merely 1% of human weight, or 0.62 kilograms

Heat energy of sugar (carbohydrate) is 1.255 kilojoules per kilogram.

We get 562,566.30 Joules

Conclusion

Adding them together, we get:

213,118,128 + 17,892,746.16 + 24,535,959.36 + 3,531,392.28 + 562,566.30= 259,640,792.1 Joules or 0.062055638647228 tons of TNT (Small Building level)

Again, we took values that were the simplest and closest analogs, plus we did not include the latent heat for anything other than water.

Incinerating an average Building

This calc assumes a relatively standard two-story house. If the building in question is significantly different than this, a more specific calc may be needed.

Destruction Value: 1.70 Kilotons of TNT equivalent, or Small Town level

Vaporization of Iron

Taken from here, the density of Iron is 7,874 kg/m^3 or 7.874 g/cc. 6,213,627 / 1000 = 6,213.627 to vaporize one gram of Iron. 6213.627 Joules/g * 7.874 g/cc = 48926.098998 Joules/cc.

Source

Source 2

Iron characteristics

  • Density: 7.874 g/cm^3
  • Boiling point: 2862 °C
  • Heat of fusion: 13,810 J/mol
  • Heat of vaporization: 340,000 J/mol
  • Molar Heat Capacity 25.10 J/(mol*K)
  • Molar Mass: 55.8450 g/mol
  • Room Temperature: 20 °C (average)

Conversions:

55.8450 g/mol > 0.055845 kg/m^3 so:

  • Heat of Fusion: 247 j/g
  • Heat of Vaporization: 6,088 j/g
  • Molar Heat Capacity: 0.4494 J/g*C

(7.874)(0.4494)(6088-20) = 21,472 J

(247)(7.874) + (6,088)(7.874) = 49,881.79 J

49,881.79 + 21,472 = 71,353.79 J

It actually takes around 71,353.79 j/cc to vaporize iron.

Vaporizing a Volcano

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=csIbRU6KUx4&t=9m21s

Height: 266 px or 609.6 m

Width: 181 px or 414.8 m, radius 207.4 m

pi*207.4^2*609.6/3*1e6 = 2.7459402e13 cm^3

Since it's a volcano I'm going to low-ball this and assume it's 80% hollow.

2.7459402e13*0.2 = 5.4918804e12 cm^3

5.4918804e12*25700 = 1.4114133e17 Joules, City level

Should be violent fragmentation instead

5.4918804e12*69 = 3.7893975e14 Joules, Town level+

Vaporizing Tokyo Tower

Mass = 4000000 kg

Boiling Point = 1370 C

Heat Change = 1354 C (16 C being standard temp)

Specific Heat of Steel = 466 J(kg x K)

Result = 2.524e12 Joules, or Multi-City Block level

That's melting. Vaporization can also be done, since we have mass. We will have to use Iron's value for this.

6213627 x 4000000 = 2.486e13 Joules, 5.94 Kilotons of TNT, Town level (So close to Low 7-C).

Melting/Heat Feats

Surviving the Heat of the Sun

Surface 1. Radiation: For radiation we need to know the emissivity, surface area and temperature.

The temperature of the sun is about 5500°C per Wikipedia.

For the surface area we take the surface of the average human body, since we assume that the person is submerged in the sun. The average body surface area is about 1.73 m^2 per this article.

The emissivity is about 1.2 at this temperature per this article.

Now we input these values into this calculator and get 130756044.60407 J/s.

2. Conduction: For conduction we need to know surface area, thickness of the material that the heat is transmitted through, the thermal conductivity of the material and the heat of the sun and the object.

Surface area and temperature of the sun can be taken from the radiation part.

Now for the material where the heat is transmitted through, we will take human skin.

Human Skin is around 3mm thick. (wikipedia:Human skin)

It has a thermal conductivity of about 0.209. (http://users.ece.utexas.edu/~valvano/research/Thermal.pdf)

Normal skin temperature is about 33°C. (http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/AbantyFarzana.shtml)

With that we have everything we need. We use this calculator to get a result.

The result is: 658901.0633333334 watts = 658901.0633333334 J/s.

Now we add both results together to get a final value: 658901.0633333334 J/s + 130756044.60407 J/s = 1.3141494566740333*10^8 J/s. Core Now a similar procedure for the core. The core of the sun is about 15.7 million Kelvin hot. The emissivity of the sun at temperatures such as this isn´t known, but the article that is linked to emissivity states says that the minimum lies at 6900°C. So, we will use the minimum emissivity of 0.92 for this. Now we just need to input all values in the calculators again.

1. Radiation: 5.4829665830548E+21 J/s

2. Conduction: 1892212356.0633333 J/s

5.4829665830548E+21 J/s + 1892212356.0633333 J/s = 5.4829665830566922E+21 J/s

Note: This is for a human in the sun. If the character is a lot bigger or smaller than an average human, or if the character is made from another material, like for example metal, this numbers change.

Maximum internal energy intake If an object is heated it usually doesn't get hotter than the source of the heat. If the object is as hot as the heat source the energy itself emits to its surroundings should be equal to the energy it is infused with.

That means there is a maximum amount of thermal energy an object can take in through a certain source of heat.

In order to calculate this energy, we will just measure how much energy will be necessary to heat the object to this temperature, from the point that it has no internal energy, which should be 0K.

The specific heat capacity of a human body is 3470 J/kg.oC

Average weight of a grown human is around 62 kg.

Surface: The surface of the sun has a temperature of 5.773.2K.

3470*62*5773.2 = 1.242046248E+9J

That is Building Level.

Core: The core of the sun has a temperature of 15 700 000K.

3470*62*15 700 000 = 3.377698E+12J

That is Multi-City Block Level+.

Melting a Plane

Specific Heat Capacity Titanium Ti-6Al-4V = 526.3 J/kg-°C

Steel = 510 J/kg-°C

Aluminum 2024-T3 = 875 J/kg-°C

Melting Point Titanium = 1604 °C

Steel = 1425 °C

Aluminum = 502 °C

Latent Heat of Fusion Titanium = 419000 J/Kg

Steel = 272000 J/Kg (This is for Iron, but is nearly the same though)

Aluminum = 398000 J/Kg

Total Energy = (((526.3)*(7320.98084)*(1604-25)) + ((7320.98084)*(419000))) + (((510)*(23793.1877)*(1604-25)) + ((23793.1877)*(272000))) + (((875)*(148249.862)*(1604-25)) + ((148249.862)*(398000))) = 2.9861275268025227e11 Joules, or 71.37 Tons, City Block level+

Melting a Tank

The mass of a tank is around 60 tons.

Materials of tanks and especially how much of which is there is mostly classified information. Using this article on composite armor we get 10% ceramics and 90% steel, given that the mechanics and everything will be made out of metal. For the ceramics we will assume Alumina, since that is also mentioned as a material used here.

Specific heat of materials: Per this article:

“c” of alumina = 850 J/(kg*K)

“c” of steel = 481 J/(kg*K)

2.2 Latent heat of fusion:

Steel: 260000 J/kg per this article.

Alumina: 620000 J/kg as per this article.

Melting point:

Alumina: 2072 °C (per Wikipedia)

Steel: 1425 °C (per this)

Mass of materials: 6000 kg alumina, 54000 kg Steel

Assuming a tank is on average 20°C warm.

High end:

850 J/(kg*K) * 6000 kg * (2072 °C - 20 °C) + 620000 J/kg * 6000 kg + 481 J/(kg * K) * 54000 kg * (2072 °C - 20 °C) + 260000 J/kg * 56000 kg = 8.2043848e10 Joules, City Block level

Low end: 850 J/(kg*K)*6000 kg *(1425 °C - 20 °C) + 620000 J/kg * 6000 kg + 481 J/(kg * K) * 54000 kg * (1425 °C - 20 °C) + 260000 J/kg * 56000 kg = 6.193897e10 Joules, City Block level

Melting a Car

Description: The energy necessary to melt a car.

Requirements: The car in question may be at most 20°C warm and has to be at least the size of an average car and similar in composition.

Results: 1334006051 Joules or 0.3188350982314 tons of TNT or Building level

Calculation: From the destroying a car calc we see there's:

900 kg of steel

180.076 kg of aluminum

22.226 kg of copper

45.3592 kg of glass

183.0245 kg of plastic

About 4.7 kg of rubber. Yes, I'm combining the two kinds. Sue me.

And 131.77764000000002 kg of cast iron.

There is no latent heat of fusion for glass, but melting glass is 2494 J/cm^3

Glass makes up 2.478313012738732% of a car.

Volume of a mid-size car is 3.1e+6 cm^3

(3.1e+6)*2.478313012738732% = 76827.7033949

76827.7033949*2494 = 191608292.267 Joules

Specific Heat:

Steel = 481 J/(kg*K)

Aluminum = 870 J/(kg*K)

Copper = 390 J/(kg*K)

Plastic = 1670 J/(kg*K)

Rubber = 2010 J/(kg*K)

Cast iron = 460 J/(kg*K)

Latent Heat of Fusion:

Steel = 260000 J/kg

Aluminum = 396567.46 J/kg

Copper = 206137 J/kg

Plastic = I couldn't find an explicit one for plastic, but I did find one for propylene which is used in plastic so that's going to have to do. 71400 J/kg

Rubber = (On page 512 of this) 16710 J/kg

Cast iron = 247112.54 J/kg

Melting Point:

Steel = 1425 °C

Aluminum = 502 °C

Copper = 1084.62 °C

Plastic = 100 °C

Rubber = 600 °C

Cast iron = 1538 °C

Assuming a car is on average 20°C warm.

Energy = ((481*900*(1425-20))+(900*260000))+((870*180.076*(502-20))+(180.076*396567.46))+((390*22.226*(1084.62-20)+(22.226*206137))+((1670*45.3592*(100-20))+(45.3592*71400))+((2010*4.7*(600-20))+(4.7*16710))+((460*131.77764000000002*(1538-20))+(131.77764000000002*247112.54)) = 1142397758.73 Joules

1142397758.73+191608292.267 = 1334006051 Joules or 0.3188350982314 tons of TNT or barely Building level

Durability to Tank Lava

Lava can be between 700°C and 1250°C. Given that we likely don´t know the heat of the lava let's work with 700°C.

Emissivity of Lava is between 0.55 and 0.85. At the given temperature it should be around 0.65.

The average human body surface area is 1.73 m^2.

At last, we input all these stats in this calculator. That results in 57182.306177806 J/s.

Now part 2 heat transfer through conduction.

Human Skin is around 3 mm thick. (wikipedia:Human skin)

It has a thermal conductivity of about 0.209 (http://users.ece.utexas.edu/~valvano/research/Thermal.pdf)

Normal skin temperature is about 33°C (http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/AbantyFarzana.shtml)

Now we use this calculator. That gives us 80389.06333333334 J/s.

Now we add that together and get: 1.3757136951113934e5 J/s, Wall level

Weather Feats

Destructive Energy of Winds

Air is 1.225 kg/m^3 at sea level. I am going to find the energy of different winds at different speeds and different sizes.

1 m^3 of air:

1 m/s = 0.6125 J = Below Average level

5 m/s = 15.3125 J = Below Average level

10 m/s = 61.25 J = Human level (A little over Low-End wind speed of a thunderstorm)

20 m/s = 245 J = Athlete level+ (A little over the High-End wind speed of a thunderstorm and Low-end speed of an f0 tornado)

40 m/s = 980 J = Street level (Speeds of an F1 tornado and Category 1 hurricane)

50 m/s = 1531.25 J = Street level (An F2 tornado and Cat. 3 hurricane)

70 m/s = 3001.25 J = Street level (An F3 tornado and Cat. 5 hurricane)

90 m/s = 4961.25 J = Street level (An F4 Tornado)

115 m/s = 8100.31 J = Street level (An F5 tornado)

135 m/s = 11162.8 J = Street level+ (Highest wind speed recorded on Earth)

170 m/s = 17701.3 J = Wall level (Great Red Spot wind speeds)

500 m/s = 153125 J = Wall level (Wind speed of Saturn)

600 m/s = 220500 J = Wall level (Wind speed of Neptune)

2415 m/s = 3572240 J = Wall level (Fastest wind speed ever found on a planet)

This is only for 1 cubic meter of air and not taking account higher masses of air. And in terms of wind, unless it is a gust, these wind speeds are continuous and would keep on delivering the same number of Joules over and over to whatever object.

Creating a Storm

Storms are calculated with either CAPE, condensation, or KE (if applicable). You can read more about that here. Usually, the storm clouds extend all the way to the horizon. The visibility on a normal day is 20 km.

Storm clouds have a height of 8000 m.

π×8,000×20,000^2 = 10053096491487 m^3.

Multiplying that by 1.003 (density of cloud) gives us 10083255780961 kg.

CAPE

"Weak instability": 1.008325578096e16 Joules, 2.40995597059316 Megatons, Small City level

"Moderate instability": 2.520813945240e16 Joules, 6.02488992648291 Megatons, Small City level+

"Strong instability": 4.033302312384e16 Joules, 9.63982388237265 Megatons, City level

1999 Oklahoma Tornado Outbreak: 5.939037654986e16 Joules, 14.1946406667937 Megatons, City level

1990 Plainfield Tornado: 8.066604624769e16 Joules, 19.2796477647453 Megatons, City level

Condensation So, a storm is generally 1-3 grams per meter. We'll use 1 gram for this, so, it's 10053096491487 g, 10053096491.487 kg.

Now, for condensation, the value is 2264705 j/kg, so, put that with the above and it's

2.2767297889753066335e16 Joules, 5.44151479200599 Megatons, Small City level+

KE

KE is a bit reliant on a specific timeframe, however in this case, the standard assumption is a minute. However, if it takes less than a minute, then you can make your own calc, assuming the storm qualifies for KE Standards

20000/60 is 333.333333333333 m/s

Now, 0.5×10083255780961×333.333333333333^2 is....

5.601808767200e17 Joules, 133.886442810720 Megatons, Mountain level

Flooding the Entire Earth

This calculation uses this blog for reference.

  • Earth's surface area = 510,072,000km^2

Genesis 7:19-20 states the waters went fifteen cubits above the highest mountains. The cubit is an ancient Egypt Roman unit of size which was, on average, equivalent to 45.72cm. So, fifteen cubits would be seven meters.

  • Water volume = 510,072,000*8.8850 = 4516687560km^3, or 4.51668756e18 cubic meters
  • Water density = 1025kg/m^3 (For an average value between seawater and freshwater)
  • Mass of water = 4.6296047e21kg

In order to truly flood the planet, one would need to vaporize all of this water and condense the vapor into rain clouds

  • Average global temperature = 16 degrees Celsius

Vaporization

  • q1 = (4.6296047e21kg)*(84)*(4186) = 1.6278e27 Joules
  • q2 = (4.6296047e21kg)*(2264760) = 1.04849435e28 Joules
  • Total = 1.2112743e+28 Joules

Condensation

At the same temperature of 16 degrees Celsius, we approximate the latent heat of condensation with:

  • 2500.8 - 2.36*16 + 0.0016(16)^2 - 0.00006(16)^3 = 2463.20384j/g, or 2463203.84 Joules per kilogram.
  • q3 = (4.6296047e21)*(2463203.84) = 1.140366e28 Joules
  • Total flood energy = 1.2112743e28+1.140366e28 = 2.3561e28j, or 5.6205 exatons of TNT Multi-Continent level

Creating a Snowstorm

Description: The energy required to create a snowstorm has to be calculated.

Requirements: The snowstorm has to cover the entire sky on a priorly clean day or needs to be at least 20km in radius. The temperature of the land in that area needs to be cooled, such that a total temperature change of at least 20.5°C happens. For the CAPE end the storm needs to demonstrate a moderate instability.

Results:

  • Condensation + Temperature Change = 15.73 Megatons of TNT (City level)
  • CAPE + Temperature Change = 15.95 Megatons of TNT (City level)

Calculation: The type of clouds that produce snow are Nimbostratus, which usually are 2000 to 4000 meters high, with 3000 meters being the average.

Assuming the snowstorm was created on a clear day and with a good view to horizon, the radius of this cloud would be 20000 meters.

Volume = pi*20000^2*3000 = 3769911184307.75 m^3

The liquid water content of Nimbostratus clouds is 0.001 kg/m^3.

Cloud Mass (Water) = 3769911184307.75 x 0.001 = 3769911184.31 kg

The density of cloud air is 1.003 kg/m^3.

Cloud Mass (Air) = 3769911184307.75 x 1.003 = 3781220917860.67 kg

Now we just need to apply the different methods.

Condensation

The formula for condensation is 2264705 J/kg.

Energy = 2264705 x 3769911184.31 = 8537736708662778.55 Joules, 2.04 Megatons of TNT

CAPE

In this method we're going to assume a moderate instability of 2500 J/kg for the snowstorm.

Energy = 3781220917860.67 x 2500 = 9453052294651675, 2.26 Megatons of TNT

Temperature Change

For this final method we need to calculate the temperature change made at the surface, below the storm. The average temperature between 0 meters (Sea level) and 2000 meters is 8.50°C (281.65 K), and the average density of air is 1.112 kg/m^3. A snowstorm can get temperatures down to -12°C (261.15 K).

Mass = (pi*(20000)^2*2000)*1.112 = 2794760824633.48 kg

C = 1000 J/kg*K

ΔΤ = T(Initial) - T(Final) = 281.65 - 261.15 = -20.5 K

Q = M*C*ΔΤ

Q = (2794760824633.48)*1000*20.5 = 5.86*10^20 Joules, 13.69 Megatons of TNT

Earth Feats

Destroying the Surface of the Earth

Earth's circumference = 40075 km

Explosion radius = 20037.50 km

Y = ((x/0.28)^3)

Y is in kilotons; x is radius in kilometers.

Y = ((20037.50/0.28)^3) = 366485260009765.63 Kilotons of TNT

Only 50% of the total energy of the explosion is actually from the blast as this is an air-blast explosion, so we need to halve the result. This part can be ignored if the explosion was an actual nuclear explosion.

366485260009765.63/2 = 183242630004882.82 Kilotons of TNT, or 183.24 Petatons of TNT, Multi-Continent level

However, in the case of a ground-based explosion where the explosion is generated on the ground, we use the following formula:

W = R^3*((27136*P+8649)^(1/2)/13568-93/13568)^2, where W is the yield in tons of TNT, R is the radius and P is the shockwave pressure in bars, where we generally use 1.37895 bars or 20 psi of pressure. There is no need to halve the explosion yield result in the case of ground-based explosions.

R = 20037.50 km or 20037500 m

P = 1.37895 bars

W = 20037500^3*((27136*1.37895+8649)^(1/2)/13568-93/13568)^2 = 6.46570851e+17 tons of TNT or 646.57085 Petatons (Multi-Continent level)

Shaking the Earth

This method assumes that all they're doing is causing the Earth to quake via sheer brute Force. This is what is usually used for the standard Earthquake feat, but, if there's sufficient evidence, they're also moving the plates via magic or sheer rule of cool, you can move to the next section.

Either way, first we'll need to determine the kind of magnitude needed to cause the entire Earth to quake. We'll assume that it feels like a Magnitude 4 across the world, just standard noticeable shaking with no real damage.

To find how strong of an impact it truly was, you use this equation:

(Magnitude at distance) + 6.399 + 1.66×log((r/110)×((2×π)/360)) = Richter Magnitude of Earthquake, with r representing the distance away from it.

In our case, it would be, using half of the Circumference of earth,

(4)+6.399+1.66×log((20037.5÷110)×((2×π)÷360)) = Magnitude 11.2328648415393

Now, we take the magnitude and use the formula for a joule count from said magnitude listed in Earthquake Calculations

10^(1.5*(11.2328648415393)+4.8) is 4.459613919339E21 Joules, 1.06587330768147 Teratons, Small Country level

The Earth's Rotational Energy

(Picture) The formula of the rotational energy is K = 1/2* Ι*ω^2

The moment of inertia of a sphere is 2/5mR^2

The Earth's angular velocity is 7.3*10^-5 rad/s

Earth's Mass = 5.97e24 kg

Earth's radius = 6372000 m

Κ = 1/2*Ι*ω^2 = 1/5 * m*R^2 *ω^2 = 2.58e29 Joules, Moon level

Splitting the Earth in half

  • Description: The energy necessary to split the Earth in half and separate the halves by a visible distance.
  • Requirements: The Earth either has to be split to an extent that is visible from outer space (so far away that one can see the Earth in its entirety) or it has to be known that the halves were separated by at least 203km.
  • Results: 5.0811706477439e+30K - Small Planet level.
  • Calculation:

Diameter of the Earth is 12 742 000 meters. Radius is 6 371 000 meters.

No feat, so I'll assume the Earth is split apart by 1 kilometer, or 1000 meters.

The center of mass of each individual half is 3R/8 from the center of the sphere.

U = GMm/r

M = m = mass of half of the Earth = 5.97237e+24/2 = 2.986185e+24 kg

G = Gravitational constant = 6.674×10^(−11) m^3⋅kg^(−1)⋅s^(−2)

r = Earth radius = 6 371 000 m

800px-The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg

Here is a picture of the Earth. The diameter of the Earth is 627 pixels, or 12 742 000 meters.

For the split to be visible I'll assume 10 pixels or so. That's 203 222 meters.

Therefore, the GPE of the unsplit Earth is still 1.245520136056038e+32 Joules. The split Earth is 1.194708429578599e+32.

So, the final tally would be 5.0811706477439e+30, or Small Planet level.

Vaporizing Earth

Based on this we're looking at the most prevalent elements in the Earth. All of this comprises the mass of the Earth (5.98e24 kg).

  • Iron: 32.1% (1.91958e24 kg), Heat Capacity of 460
  • Oxygen: 30.1% (1.79998e24 kg), Heat Capacity of 919
  • Silicon: 15.1% (9.0298e23 kg), Heat Capacity of 710
  • Magnesium: 13.9% (8.3122e23 kg), Heat Capacity of 1050
  • Sulfur: 2.9% (1.7342e23 kg), Heat Capacity of 700
  • Nickel: 1.8% (1.0764e23 kg), Heat Capacity of 440
  • Calcium: 1.5% (8.97e22 kg), Heat Capacity 630
  • Aluminium: 1.4% (8.372e22 kg), Heat Capacity of 870

The last 1.2% is a mixture of tons of lesser elements. For the sake of this calc, we'll be ignoring it.

All layers of the Earth are solid save for one, which is a layer of molten iron as hot as the surface of the sun. Considering how minuscule the oceans are in relation to the rest of Earth we'll be ignoring these as the only other quote unquote major source of liquid.

Let's get on with the liquid bit first. The inner core is about 1% of the Earth's total volume at 1.0837e21 m^3 total. 1% of that is 1.0837e19 m^3 for the Inner Core.

Density of liquid iron is 6980 kg/m^3. Mass of the Inner Core is 7.564226e22 kg. This means the iron content of Earth is now divided into the categories "Liquid" and "Solid".

  • Solid Iron: 1.84393774e24 kg
  • Liquid Iron: 7.564226e22 kg

Now we can actually calc the energy needed to vaporize. For the purpose of this calc we will assume the Earth is heated uniformly to the same heat. Let's look at the heat each element needs to vaporize (AKA Boiling Point).

  • Iron = 2862 C
  • Oxygen = -183 C (so this is pointless)
  • Silicon = 3265 C
  • Magnesium = 1091 C
  • Sulfur = 444.6 C
  • Nickel = 2913 C
  • Calcium = 1484 C
  • Aluminum = 2470 C

So, Silicon's heat will be our assumed heat. As a high-end we'll use the boiling point of Tungsten in order to account for truly all elements on Earth- 3414 C is our high-end.

Let's handle heat change first. The core is assumed to maintain heat similar to the surface of our sun all throughout as a starting point- 5778 C, so not relevant. We'll assume the other stuff is the average of their ambient temperatures.

For the purposes of this calculation, we will assume all elements are roughly evenly distributed through the sections of Earth aside from the Inner Core- we even know the Outer Core isn't entirely iron.

Outer Core represents 15% of total Earth volume and is comprised of iron and nickel for the most part. The assumptions have to be hefty in order to make up for this- we'll assume half of the world's nickel is present here (0.9%) and the rest is Iron (14.1%, or about 45.338% of remaining iron). Adjusted values below.

  • Iron in Inner Core: 7.564226e22 kg
  • Iron in Outer Core: 8.36004493e23 kg
  • Iron in Mantle/Crust: 1.00793325e24 kg
  • Nickel in Core: 5.382e22 kg
  • Nickel in Mantle/Crust: 5.382e22 kg

Anything in the Core isn't relevant for heat change since everything there would vaporize from heat anyways if the pressure wasn't so high. So, we're ignoring them aside from just shifting states of matter.

We'll put all the things the Crust is made of here. Everything else is assumed to be in the Mantle. We're looking at Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, and Magnesium. Divide this 1% volume between them for the following masses:

  • Total Volume = 1.0837e19 m^3
  • Volume Each = 1.80616667e18 m^3
  • Oxygen = 2.06083617e15 kg
  • Silicon = 4.20475601e21 kg
  • Aliminium = 4.89471168e21 kg
  • Iron = 1.42217564e22 kg
  • Calcium = 3.61233334e21 kg
  • Magnesium = 3.14273001e21 kg

Subtract this from values established at the beginning to get the following table of values.

Mass of Elements

  • Mass of Earth = 5.98e24 kg
  • Mass of Crustal Iron = 1.42217564e22 kg
  • Mass of Crustal Oxygen = 2.06083617e15 kg
  • Mass of Crustal Silicon = 4.20475601e21 kg
  • Mass of Crustal Calcium = 3.61233334e21 kg
  • Mass of Crustal Magnesium = 3.14273001e21 kg
  • Mass of Mantle-Based Iron = 9.93711494e23 kg
  • Mass of Mantle-Based Nickel = 5.382e22 kg
  • Mass of Mantle-Based Oxygen = 1.79998e24 kg
  • Mass of Mantle-Based Silicon = 8.98775244e23 kg
  • Mass of Mantle-Based Sulfur = 1.7342e23 kg
  • Mass of Mantle-Based Magnesium = 8.2807727e23 kg
  • Mass of Mantle-Based Aluminium = 7.88252883e22 kg
  • Mass of Mantle-Based Calcium = 8.60876667e22 kg
  • Mass of Outer-Core Iron = 8.36004493e23 kg
  • Mass of Outer-Core Nickel = 5.382e22 kg
  • Mass of Inner-Core Iron = 7.564226e22 kg

Now we need Specific Heat energy since we've spent all that time setting this shit up. We won't do anything for the Core elements since their heat doesn't need to change at all for this event to happen.

Specific Heat Energy

As said earlier, as a low-end we assume 3265 C end temperature, as a high-end we assume 3414 C end temperature based on Tungsten. EDIT: Coming back to it, just using the high-end. Results don't change much and it's the only thing that makes logical sense.

The calculation for this is just mass times specific heat times temperature change (which varies). I'm beaten by this so far so I'm using this.

  • Low-End Temp Change for Crust Elements = 2915 C
  • High-End Temp Change for Crust Elements = 3064 C
  • Low-End Temp Change for Mantle Elements = 1165 C
  • High-End Temp Change for Mantle Elements = 1314 C

Let's get to it.

  • Crustal Iron = 2.005e28 Joules
  • Mantle Iron = 6.006e29 Joules
  • Crustal Oxygen = 5.803e21 Joules
  • Mantle Oxygen = 2.174e30 Joules
  • Crustal Silicon = 9.147e27 Joules
  • Mantle Silicon = 8.385e29 Joules
  • Crustal Magnesium = 1.011e28 Joules
  • Mantle Magnesium = 1.143e30 Joules
  • Mantle Sulfur = 1.595e29 Joules
  • Mantle Nickel = 3.115e28 Joules
  • Mantle Aluminium = 9.011e28 Joules
  • Mantle Calcium = 7.127e28 Joules

Total Energy of Heat Change = 5.14743701e30 Joules, Small Planet level. But we're far from done.

Shifts in Matter

Now we get into truly changing the matter from solid/liquid to gas. For this we classify everything by solid or liquid. Everything in the inner core is liquid (a small amount of iron)- everything else is held to be solid. This includes the outer core which shifts between liquid and solid.

For solids, they must undergo a state of fusion and vaporization, so we need to multiply them by their values for that in J/kg. For the liquid, it must only undergo the value for vaporization. Oxygen is already gaseous, so it needn't be accounted for.

  • Solid Iron = 1.84393774e24 kg
  • Liquid Iron = 7.564226e22 kg
  • Solid Silicon = 9.0298e23 kg
  • Solid Magnesium = 8.3122e23 kg
  • Solid Sulfur = 1.7342e23 kg
  • Solid Nickel = 1.0764e23 kg
  • Solid Aluminium = 8.372e22 kg
  • Solid Calcium = 8.97e22 kg

Let's start with the irons.

  • Liquid Iron Vaporization = 4.700e29 Joules
  • Solid Iron Fusion & Vaporization = 4.557e29 Joules & 1.146e31 Joules
  • Solid Silicon Fusion & Vaporization = 1.614e30 Joules & 1.154e31 Joules
  • Solid Magnesium Fusion & Vaporization = 3.062e29 Joules & 4.357e30 Joules
  • Solid Sulfur Fusion & Vaporization = 9.288e27 Joules & 5.299e28 Joules
  • Solid Nickel Fusion & Vaporization = 3.204e28 Joules & 6.793e29 Joules
  • Solid Calcium Fusion & Vaporization = 1.911e28 Joules & 3.469e29 Joules
  • Solid Aluminium Fusion & Vaporization = 3.320e28 Joules & 9.091e29 Joules

Total Fusion + Vaporization Energy = 3.2284828e31 Joules, Small Planet level

the latent heat of fusion/vaporization for Magnesium, Sulfur, and Nickel were calculated since they aren't present on our Calculations page.

Magnesium has Fusion of 8954 J/mol and 127400 J/mol for Vaporization. Magnesium weighs 24.305 g/mol so energy is...

  • Fusion: 368401.563 J/kg
  • Vaporization: 5241719.81 J/kg

Sulfur has Fusion of 1717.5 J/mol and 9800 J/mol for Vaporization. Sulfur weighs 32.07 g/mol so energy is...

  • Fusion: 53554.724 J/kg
  • Vaporization: 305581.54 J/kg

Nickel has Fusion of 17470 J/mol and 370400 J/mol for Vaporization. Nickel weighs 58.69 g/mol so energy is...

  • Fusion: 297665.501 J/kg
  • Vaporization: 6311126.26 J/kg

Total Energy

We're adding together all values denoted in Vaporizing Earth's topic as well as the GBE of Earth.

  • GBE of Earth = 2.24e32 Joules
  • Matter Shifting of Earth = 3.2284828e31 Joules
  • Heat Change of Earth = 5.14743701e30 Joules

Total Energy = 2.614e32 Joules, Planet level.

The World Gets Vaporized: 62.48 Zettatons of TNT, Planet level

Freezing Feats

Freezing a Human

A handy latent heat calculator

A handy specific heat calculator

Average human weight = 62kg


The average temperature of a human body is 37 °C. Temperature required to cause frostbite is -4 °C.

Temperature change= 37-(-4) = 41 °C

Specific heat capacity of a human is anywhere from 3.47-3.6 kJ/kg or 3470-3600 J/kg. The average is 3535 J/kg

Specific Heat capacity= temperature change * mass * heat capacity in J/kg

Specific Heat capacity= (62 * 3535 * 41) = 8,985,970 Joules

On average 65% of the human body weight is water.

So, water mass = 0.65 * 62kg= 40.3 kg of water.

Enthalpy of fusion of water is 333.55 J/g or 333550 J/kg.

Enthalpy of Fusion, Q= m * L, where Q is the energy in Joules, m is the mass in kg, and L is the specific latent heat.

Enthalpy of Fusion= 40.3 * 333550= 13,442,065 Joules

So total energy = 8,985,970 Joules + 13,442,065 = 22,428,035 Joules or 0.00536043 tons of TNT, Small Building level

Freezing a human to Absolute Zero

The average temperature of a human body is 37 °C. Absolute zero is 0 °K or -273.15 °C.

Temperature change= 37-(-273.15)= 310.15 °C

Average human weight = 62kg

Specific heat capacity of a human is anywhere from 3.47-3.6 kJ/kg or 3470-3600 J/kg. The average is 3535 J/kg

Specific Heat capacity= temperature change * mass * heat capacity in J/kg

Specific Heat capacity= (62 * 3535 * 310.15)= 67,975,575.5 Joules

On average 65% of the human body weight is water.

So, water mass = 0.65 * 62kg= 40.3 kg of water.

Enthalpy of fusion of water is 333.55 J/g or 333550 J/kg.

Enthalpy of Fusion, Q= m * L, where Q is the energy in Joules, m is the mass in kg, and L is the specific latent heat.

Enthalpy of Fusion= 40.3 * 333550= 13,442,065 Joules

Temperature required to cause frostbite is -4 °C.

Temperature change= -4 - (-273.15) = 269.15 °C

Specific heat capacity of ice = 2093 J/kg

Specific heat capacity= 40.3 * 2093 * 269.15= 22,702,237.285 Joules

So, total energy= 67,975,575.5 + 13,442,065 + 22,702,237.285= 104,119,877.785 Joules or 0.0249 tons of TNT, Small Building level

Freezing Earth

Description: Freezing the Earth. Two ends are given. One is for freezing just its atmosphere, the other is for freezing everything including oceans and the Earth's core.

Requirements: For the atmosphere end, at least all air needs to get frozen, all the way up into space. For the whole Earth end, everything including air, oceans, crust, mantle and core needs to be frozen.

Results:

  • Freezing Earth's atmosphere: 563.86 Teratons, High 6-B+
  • Freezing the entire Earth (plus its oceans): 2.378 Zettatons, Low 5-B

Calculation: This will be a calc for the energy output needed to freeze Earth, its atmosphere, or both.

Freezing the atmosphere for the first part. Info:

1. Atmosphere has a total mass of 5.15×10^18 kg (Wikipedia)

2. It's 78.09% Nitrogen and 20.95% Oxygen, the rest is negligible. (Wikipedia)


E=m*c*ΔT is the formula.

Nitrogen first. Average temperature of the atmosphere is 22.24°C.

E = [4021635000000000000 * 1040 * (295.3 - 63.15)] + (4021635000000000000 * 25702) + (4021635000000000000 * 199190)

E = 1875401006280000000000000J

Now Oxygen.

E = [1078925000000000000 * 919 * (295.3 - 54.35)] + (1078925000000000000 * 13875) + (1078925000000000000 * 213125)

E = 483825628471250000000000J

Now we add them together for a total of 2.35922663475120 × 1024 J. Energy needed to freeze the atmosphere.

Second part, freezing the core of Earth (outer core + inner core). Info:

1. The outer core weights 1.87 * 10^24 kg (Quora)

2. The inner core has a mass of 10^23kg. (Wikipedia)

3. Both outer core and inner core have a very similar temperature and composition, that is, 5700°K for the temperature and the composition is 88.8% iron, 5.8% nickel, the rest is negligible. (Wikipedia)

With that, we go to the calc. outer core first.

E = [10^23 * 88.8/100 * 460 * (5700 - 1811)] + (10^23 * 88.8/100 * 247112) + (10^23 * 88.8/100 * 6213627) + [10^23 * 11.2/100 * 440 * (5700 - 1728)] + (10^23 * 11.2/100 * 297000) + (10^23 * 11.2/100 * 6311000)

E = 8.261551112 × 10^29 J

Now for the inner core.

E = [1.87 * 10^24 * 88.8/100 * 460 * (5700 - 1811)] + (1.87 * 10^24 * 88.8/100 * 247112) + (1.87 * 10^24 * 88.8/100 * 6213627) + [1.87 * 10^24 * 11.2/100 * 440 * (5700 - 1728)] + (1.87 * 10^24 * 11.2/100 * 297000) + (1.87 * 10^24 * 11.2/100 * 6311000)

E = 1.544910057944 × 10^30 J

For a total of 2.371065 * 10^30J to freeze our Earth's core.

Final parts, crust, upper mantle and mantle. Info:

1. The mantle has a mass of 2.95 * 10^24kg. (Wikipedia)

2. The upper mantle has a mass of 1.06 * 10^24kg. (this states)

3. Earth's crust has an estimated mass of 2.6 * 10^22kg. (Quora)

4. Earth is 32.1% iron, 30.1% oxygen, 15.1% silicon, 13.9% magnesium, the rest is negligible. (Wikipedia. Let's use this for the mantle and for the upper mantle since I don't know any better and it should be about right anyways).

5. Earth's crust is 46.6% oxygen, 27.7% silicon, 8.1% aluminum, 5% iron. The rest is negligible. (Wikipedia)

6. Earth's crust has a temperature of 200°C to 400°C for an average of 573.15°K. (Wikipedia)

7. Earth's upper mantle has a temperature of 200°C to 900°C for an average of 823.15°K. (Wikipedia)

8. Earth's mantle has a temperature of 900°C to 4000°C for an average of 2723.15°K (Wikipedia)

Oof. Alright, I think we can start.

Let's start from the most intern layers to the most extern one, so we start with Earth's mantle.

E = [2.95 * 10^24 * 32.1/100 * 460 * (2723.15 - 1811)] + (2.95 * 10^24 * 32.1/100 * 247112.54) + [2.95 * 10^24 * 30.1/100 * 919 * (2723.15 - 54.15)] + (2.95 * 10^24 * 30.1/100 * 13875) + (2.95 * 10^24 * 30.1/100 * 213125) + [2.95 * 10^24 * 15.1/100 * 710 * (2723.15 - 1687)] + (2.95 * 10^24 * 15.1/100 * 1787113) + [2.95 * 10^24 * 13.9/100 * 1020 * (2723.15 - 923)] + (2.95 * 10^24 * 13.9/100 * 348971) + (2.95 * 10^24 * 13.9/100 * 5267489.71) = 7190587580813500000000000000000J

E = 7.190587 * 10^30 J for freezing the Earth's mantle.

Next step, freezing the upper mantle. The parts that are already solid at the temperature of 823.15°K are left out of the equation.

E = [1.06 * 10^24 * 30.1/100 * 919 * (823.15 - 54.15)] + (1.06 * 10^24 * 30.1/100 * 27750) + (1.06 * 10^24 * 30.1/100 * 426250)

E = 3.7033645166 * 10^29J

Next and last step, freezing Earth's crust. The parts that are already solid at the temperature of 573.15°K are left out of the equation.

E = [2.6 * 10^22 * 46.6/100 * 919 * (573.15 - 54.35)] + (2.6 * 10^22 * 46.6/100 * 27750) + (2.6 * 10^22 * 46.6/100 * 426250)

E = 1.12772965552 * 10^28J

For a precise result for the crust part specifically, it's fair to include this calc that Jasonsith made in here.

E = 6.3375485552 * 10^27J is the final result for this part then.

For a precise result for the crust part specifically, it's fair to include this calc that Jasonsith made in here.

For a total of 1.18382125552 * 10^28 J.

Freezing an average American City

Description: The energy change necessary to completely freeze an average American city.

Requirements: The City must have an area of at least 128.27 km^2 or have statements that prove that it is bigger than an average American city. Note that most cities in the modern world and virtually all cities in medieval times are smaller than an average American city. The city has to be frozen into a block of ice with 192m elevation in which even what was formerly air is now replaced by ice. Additionally it has to be evaluated which method is most appropriate for the feat.

Results:

  • Method 1: 1.695382968e15 J - Large Town level
  • Method 2: 9.1726514e+15 J or Small City level
  • Method 3: 1.241074958e19 J - Large Mountain level

Calculation: This will use an average American city

  • Area: 128.27 km2
  • Elevation = 192 m

Method 1:

Credits to AlexSoloVaAlFuturo

  • Volume = 128270000 m^2 * 192 m = 2.462784e10 m^3

Using the values of air.

  • Mass = 2.462784 e10 m^3 * 1.225 kg/m^3 = 3.0169104e10 kg

Temperature Change = 3.0169104e10 kg*1003.5 j/kg*k*(16C-(-40C)) = 1.695382968e15 J - Large Town level

Method 2:

  • Volume: 2.462784e10 m^3

Then the mass is 2.462784e10 m^3*1.165, which is nitrogen's density.

  • Mass: 28691433600kg

According to this nitrogen at ambient temperature has specific heat of 1040 J/kg K

  • Ambient temperature = 343.15 Kelvin
  • Nitrogen melting point = 63.15 Kelvin

ΔT = 343.15 - 63.15 = 280 Kelvin

Now the temperature change: Q = m*c*ΔT

  • Q = 8.3549455e+15 J

Not only did the temperature change, but also the physical state

Latent nitrogen-fusing heat = 28500 J/kg

  • E = 28691433600*28500
  • E = 8.1770586e+14 J

Total: 9.1726514e+15 or Small City level

Method 3:

Credits to AlexSoloVaAlFuturo

Density of frozen nitrogen: 1026.5 kg/m^3

  • M = 2.462784e10 m^3*1026.5 kg/m^3*0.8 = 2.022438221e13 kg
  • Q1 = 2.022438221 e13 kg * 1040 j/kg*(16 C-(-195.8 C)) = 4.454865118 e18 J

Vaporization energy oxygen = 2.022438221e13 kg*199190 j/kg = 4.028494692e18 J

  • Q2 = 2.022438221 e13kg*1040 j/kg*(-195.8 C-(-210.1 C)) = 3.007770122e17 J

Fusion energy oxygen = 2.022438221e13 kg*25702 j/kg = 5.198070716e17 J

  • E1 = 4.454865118e18 J + 4.028494692e18 J + 3.007770122e17 J + 5.198070716e17 J = 9.303943894e18 J

Density of solid oxygen: 1426 kg/m^3

  • M = 2.462784e10 m^3*1426 kg/m^3*0.2 = 7.023859968e12 kg
  • Q1 = 7.023859968e12 kg*919 j/kg*(16 C -(-182.9 C)) = 1.283885042e18 J

Vaporization energy oxygen = 7.023859968e12 kg*213125 j/kg = 1.496960156e18 J

  • Q2 = 7.023859968e12 kg*919 j/kg*(-182.9 C -(-218.3 C)) = 2.285044268e17 J

Fusion energy oxygen = 7.023859968e12 kg*13875 j/kg = 9.745605706e16 J

  • E2 = 1.283885042e18 J + 1.496960156e18 J + 2.285044268e17 J + 9.745605706e16 J = 3.106805682e18 J

Total E = 9.303943894e18 J + 3.106805682e18 J = 1.241074958e19 J - Large Mountain level

Crushing Feats

Crushing a Golf Ball

Materials of Golf Ball

A golf ball is made of a rubber core, usually Polybutadiene, and a Ionomer or latex cover, usually Polyurethane

Energy Density of Materials

I will use compressive strength rather than shear since this is crushing the ball.

Polybutadiene = 2.35 MPa on average or 2.35 J/cc

Polyurethane = 7305.75 PSI = 50.37137309 MPa = 50.37137309 J/cc on average

Volume of Ball

The core of the ball is 3.75 cm in diameter. The ball itself can be no less than 4.267 cm in diameter.

The core would be 27.61 cc. The entire ball would be 40.68 cc. To find the volume of the cover, subtract the core volume from the entire volume to get 13.07 cc for the cover.

Energy to Crush Golf Ball

2.35*27.61 = 64.8835 Joules for core

13.07*50.37137309 = 658.3538463 Joules for cover

723.2373463 Joules in total, Street level

Crushing a Human Skull

Skulls have been easily destroyed before by large caliber rounds varying from 12-gauge shotgun slugs (At least 2363 ft-lbs or 3204 J), .500 S&W Magnum hollow-point rounds (3000-3900 J) and .308 Winchester/7.62x51mm NATO rounds (Ranging from 3500 to 3700 J), all of which have muzzle energies at around 3000-3900 joules (Street level), with such damage being even possible with several types of elephant gun rounds (The examples used including the .375 H&H Magnum, .416 Rigby, .458 Lott, .460 Weatherby Magnum, .500 Jeffery, .470 Nitro Express, .500 Nitro Express, .600 Nitro Express and .700 Nitro Express) whereas full-powered punches from MMA fighters exceeding 1100 joules, and even full-powered curbstomps from humans, are not enough to wield anywhere close to a similar result.

If one were to crush a skull with their bare hands, they would need to produce at least 500 kilograms of force, which is Peak Human lifting strength.

Crushing carbon to create diamond

Volume of fist: 379.7 cc

Pressure needed to create diamond: 5688174756 J/m^3 = 5688.174756 J/cc

Temperature needed to create diamond: 1371.111 C

Room temperature: 21.111111 C

Density of Graphite: 2.260 g/cc

Density of Anthracite: 1.506 g/cc

Graphite specific heat: 720 J/g*K

Anthracite specific heat: 1.260 J/g*K

Percent volume of carbon in anthracite: 86%

Crushing graphite:

379.7*2.260*720*(1371.111-21.111111) + 5688.174756*379.7 = 3.1324797230532E6 J or 0.00074868062214465 Tons of TNT (9-B)

Crushing Anthracite:

379.7*1.506*1.26*(1371.111-21.111111) + 5688.174756*379.7 = 2.9963045555052E6 J or 0.00071613397598117 Tons of TNT (9-B)

Potential Energy/Lifting Feats

Leaping onto a Roof

Another common feat in fiction is when a character is leaping high in the air usually to jump on a roof of a nearby building.

Small building (10 m)

PE = 70*10*9.81 = 6.867e3 Joules, Street level

Average building (30 m)

PE = 70*30*9.81 = 2.0601e4 Joules, Wall level

Tall building (70 m)

PE = 70*70*9.81 = 4.8069e4 Joules, Wall level

Skyscrapers (300 m)

PE= 70*300*9.81 = 2.0601e5 Joules, Wall level

Snapping a Human Neck

The amount of force necessary to break a neck is around 1000-1250 lbf.

However, technique can greatly reduce the lifting strength necessary through leverage and body weight application. In addition, many fictional cases of neck snapping are outliers, with the characters never demonstrating similar lifting strength in any other capacity.

For these reasons, only use neck snapping as justification for Class 1 if the character has consistently demonstrated such strength with other feats.

Ripping off heads

Credits to vsauce3 for his video.

According to vsauce3's video, it takes about 5000 to 15000 newtons of force to rip out a human head, with the lower-end being supported by accidental hanging drops generating 1000-1260 lbf or 453.592 kgf to 572 kgf (Class 1) which rarely resulted in decapitations, and with higher-end being supported by another certified medical article here, which states a pulling strength of 12000 newtons being required to rip heads off.

5000 newtons of force= 509.8581 kgf (Class 1 lifting strength) (Note: This is the absolute bare minimum required to rip heads off based on the values derived from hanging drops. It should at the very least also suffice for ripping heads off of weaker-than-average people, as not all human bodies have a standardized value).

12000 newtons of force= 1223.6595 kgf (Class 5 lifting strength) (Note: This is the medically certified standard for casually ripping heads out, which supports vsauce3's higher-end value of 15000 newtons, and should work for ripping out heads of average human beings)

15000 newtons of force= 1529.5743 kgf (Class 5 lifting strength) (Note: This is the higher-end value calculated by vsauce3)

Note: It should be noted that all these numbers are equally correct and applicable, as not all human beings have the same body type or the same strength level. For example, it would be easier to rip off the head of a child than ripping out the head of a world-champion heavyweight lifter.

Ripping off spines

Credits to vsauce3 for his video.

According to vsauce3, the absolute minimum force required to even try and rip out the spine from the skeleton itself would require forces upwards of 1 million newtons, or 101971.621 kgf (Class K lifting strength), to rip it clean from the back and neck muscles as well would require even higher forces and greater pulling distance.

Object Destruction Feats

Destroying a Door

Standard size for a door is 203.2 cm tall, 91.44 cm wide, and 3.334 cm thick.

Volume = 61947.75 cm^3

Fragmentation values for wood and steel can be found here.

Wood Door Fragmentation = 516644.24 Joules

V. Frag = 1136121.74 Joules

Pulverization = 2907827.38 Joules

Steel Door Fragmentation = 1.289e7 Joules

V. Frag = 3.522e7 Joules

Pulverization = 4.058e7 Joules

Destroying a Car

Mass and Weight of Materials

The EPA stated that an average vehicle produced in 2016 weighed on average, 4,035 lbs. or 1830.245 kg

On average, 900 kg of steel is used in the making of a vehicle, or 49.1737444% of the car.

as of 2015, The average vehicle uses 397 lbs. of aluminum. or 180.076 kg at 9.838901349272913 % of the car.

The highest amount of copper used in an average conventional car is 49 lbs. or 22.226 kg at 1.2143729391420275 % of the car.

The amount of glass in an average vehicle is 100 lbs. or 45.3592 kg at 2.478313012738732% of the car

Plastic makes up 10% of the weight of a car. or 183.0245 kg

Tires are made up of 14% natural rubber and 27% synthetic rubber with an average weight of 25 lbs. or 11.3398 kg. 14% of the tires is 1.5875720000000002 kg. 27% is 3.0617460000000003 kg. Since there are 4 tires, we will time these numbers by 4. The total weight of natural rubber is 6.350288 kg, or 0.3469638217834225 % of the car. The total weight of synthetic rubber is 12.246984 kg, or 0.6691445134394576% of the car.

The amount of cast iron in an average car is about 7.2%. or 131.77764000000002 kg.

This all accounts for about 80.92144004% of the weight for the car. This isn't 100% but this is as much of the percentage of materials that could be found, so consider this a low-ball or a near complete fragmentation of a car.

Density of Materials

Steel = an average of 7.9 g/cm³

Aluminum = 2.7 g/cm³

Copper = 8.96 g/cm³

Glass = an average of 5 g/cm³

Plastic = and average of 2.235 g/cc (http://www.tregaltd.com/img/density%20of%20plastics[1].pdf)

Natural Rubber = 0.92 g/cm³

Synthetic Rubber = We will use polybutadiene since it is mostly used in car tires. 0.925 g/cm^3

Cast Iron = an average density of 7.3 g/cm³

Volume of Materials

Steel = 113,924.0506 cm³

Aluminum = 66,694.81481 cm³

Copper = 2,480.580357 cm³

Glass = 9,071.84 cm³

Plastic = 81,890.1566 cm³

Natural Rubber = 6,902.486957 cm³

Synthetic Rubber = 13239.9827 cm³

Cast Iron = 18,051.73151 cm³

Energy to Fragment Materials

To find shear strength from tensile strength, just times the ultimate tensile strength by 0.60.

Steel = 208 j/cc

Cast Iron = 149 MPa or j/cc

Glass = 3.5 j/cc

Aluminum = 40000 PSI = 275.79 megapascals = 275.79 J/cc

Copper = 25,000 PSI = 172.36893 MPa = 172.36893 J/cc

Plastic = It is insanely difficult for me to find plastic mechanical properties. Polypropylene will be used since it is used for most cars, especially in their bumpers. an average of 38.7 MPa = 38.7 j/cc

Natural Rubber = 0.001 GPa = 1 MPa = 1 J/cc

Synthetic Rubber = 4.285714286 MPa = 4.285714286 J/cc

Total Energy

23,696,202.52 Joules for all the steel

2689707.995 Joules for all the iron

31,751.44 Joules for all the glass

18,393,762.98 Joules for all the aluminum

3169149.06 Joules for all the plastic

427,574.9819 Joules for all the copper

56742.783 Joules for Synthetic Rubber

6902.486957 Joules for all the natural rubber

Adding this all up is 48,471,794.25 Joules = Small Building level

Destroying a Tree

Volume of Tree

A white oak tree will be used since they are somewhat common and are not overly large.

White Oak = 30 m height, 1.27 meter diameter

Plugging this into the formula for volume of a cylinder since tree trunks are cylindrical = 38 m^3

Energy to Destroy Tree

The weakest wood that could be found comes from Ceiba pentandra at 350 PSI = 2.41317 MPa = 2.41317 J/cc. The hardest wood that could be found is Dalbergia nigra at 2360 PSI = 16.27163 MPa = 16.27163 J/cc

Low End: 2.41317*38000000 = 9.1700460e7 Joules, 0.022 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

High End: 16.27163 x 38000000 = 6.1832194e8 Joules, 0.148 Tons of TNT Small Building level+

The high end is a low ball since Dalbergia nigra is not the hardest type of wood. The low end could go lower since wood like balsa is weaker than Ceiba pentandra.

This also doesn't take into account branches either.

Destroying a Wrecking Ball

Volume of Ball

The weight of a wrecking ball ranges from 450 kg to 5400 kg and they are made of steel.

Steel = density of 7.9 g/cc

450000/7.9 = 56962.02532 cc

5400000/7.9 = 683544.3038 cc

Energy to Destroy Wrecking Ball

Steel = 208 J/cc

Low-end: 208*6962.02532 = 1.184810127e7 Joules, Wall level+

High-end: 208*683544.3038 = 1.421772152e8 Joules, or 0.034 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Breaking off a Lock

Volume of shackle This is a fairly standard lock.

MUL-T-LOCK-TSR25 size.png

There will be no measurement to how much energy it takes to completely fragment a lock since most are just broken off. So, it will be just the measurement of the shackle and not the rest of the lock.

The lock is one inch or 61 px. or 0.04163934426 cm a pixel

Red = Portion that is a cylinder is 44 px or 1.832131147 cm

Plugging in the values of the radius of the shackle with the height gives me 1.78 cc x 2 = 3.56 cc for both sides. But, this doesn't take into account the curved portion. So, to find the volume of that, I'll just use the volume of a torus x 0.5.

Orange = Major radius 30 px or 1.249180328 cm

This gives a volume of 2.36 cc

2.36 + 3.56 = 5.92 cc

Since this is just breaking off the lock, the shackle is not usually fragmented completely, so it would be best to just use 1/4 of the volume = 1.48 cc

Energy to Destroy Shackles

To find shear strength from tensile strength, just times the ultimate tensile strength by 0.60.

Lock shackles are typically made of Brass, normal Steel, stainless steel, hardened steel, and boron alloy steel

Brass is 235 MPa or 235 J/cc

Steel = 208 j/cc

Hardened Steel = Tensile strength is at least 1000 MPa. 1000 x 0.60 = shear strength 600 MPa = 600 J/cc

Stainless Steel = Tensile strength is 505 MPa. 505 x 0.60 = 303 MPa = 303 J/cc

Cannot find boron alloyed steel tensile or shear strength.

Steel = 307.84 J

Low-End = Street level

Brass = 347.8 J

Mid-Low End = Street level

Stainless Steel = 448.44 J

Mid-High End = Street level

Hardened Steel = 888 J

High-End = Street level

Destroying Blades

Volumes of Blades

A knightly (or short) sword blade is typically 31 3/8 inches long, 2 inches wide, and .192 inches thick A long sword blade is at least 90 cm long 4.14 mm thick [1]

Red = length 90 cm or 964 px at 0.09336099585 cm a pixel

Orange = Width 30.1 px or 2.810165975 cm

Longsword = 104.71 cc

Short sword = 200.58 cc

Energy to Destroy Blades

Assuming they are made of steel.

Longsword = 2.177968e4 Joules, Wall level

Short sword = 4.172064e4 Joules, Wall level

Note: This is the fragmentation of an entire blade, but not the hilt.

Destroying a Chimney

Volume of Chimney

I could not find the average size of a chimney, so I'll just use this one for a baseline. It is 8 feet tall and 2 feet wide and long.

I will use this calculator to find the volume of a hollow cuboid. [2]

length = Red 243.84 cm or 239 px at 1.020251046 cm a pixel

Outer Edge B and C = 60.96 cm

thickness = Orange 11.4 px or 11.63086192 cm

inner Edge B and C = 60.96 - (2 x 11.63086192) = 37.69827616 cm

V = 559,603.43 cc

Energy to destroy chimney

Brick is, on average, 3.49375 MPa or 3.49375 J/cc

let's assume 50% is brick while the other half is cement.

279801.715 x 3.49375 = 977557.2418 Joules

279801.715 x 8 = 2238413.72 Joules

3.215970962e6 Joules in total, Wall level

Destroying a Barrel

Volume of Barrel

Barrels, when empty, weigh around 50 kg or 50,000 grams

Barrels are typically made of oak and steel hoops. Assuming the barrel is 90% wood and 10% steel. The density of white oak is 0.77 g/cc

Wood = 45000/0.77 = 58441.55844 cc

Steel = 5000/7.9 = 632.9113924 cc

Energy to Destroy Barrel

Some barrels are destroyed completely or just their wooden parts.

Whole Barrel:

White oak has an average shear strength of 1935 PSI or 13.34136 MPa = 13.34136 J/cc

Steel = 208 x 632.9113924 = 131645.5696 Joules

Wood = 13.34136 x 58441.55844 = 779689.8701 J

911335.4397 Joules

Wall level

Just the Wood:

Wood = 13.34136 x 58441.55844 = 779689.8701 J

Wall level

Destroying a Skyscraper

Mass of a Skyscraper = Around 222500 tons

http://theconstructor.org/practical-guide/rate-analysis-for-reinforced-concrete/6954/

154 % = 28 % Cement

154 % = 42 % Sand (which 85 % of Sand or 35.7% of the RC)

154 % = 84 % Coarse (Granite is a good assumption)

Cement = 40454.55 Tons = 40454550 kg

Silica = 51579.55 Tons = 51579550 kg

Granite = 121363.64 Tons = 121363640 kg

Cement = 40454550/1250 = 32363.64 m^3

Silica = 51579550/2650 = 19463.9811 m^3

Granite = 121363640/2700 = 44949.4963 m^3

Fragmentation:

Low End: Using Reinforced Concrete Shear Strength:

(32363640000+19463981100+44949496300) cm^3* 28 J/cc 2.7097592872e12 Joules, or 647.648013 Tons, Multi-City Block level+

High End: Using Each Material Shear Strength:

Cement = 6*32363640000 = 194181840000 J

Silica = 70*19463981100 = 1362478677000 J

Granite = 103.42*44949496300 = 4.64867691e12 J

Total Energy = 6.20533743e12 Joules, or 1.48311124 Kilotons, Small Town level

Another method:

381×129.2×57 mts = 2805836.4 m^3

90 % hollowness = 280583640000 cm^3

Fragmentation: Low End: Using Reinforced Concrete Shear Strength: 280583640000 cm^3×28 J/cm^3 = 7.85634192e12 Joules or 1.87771078 Kilotons Small Town level

High End: Using Each Material Shear Strength:

Percentages of material:

154% = 28% Cement

154% = 42% Sand (which 85% of Sand or 35.7% of the RC)

154% = 84% Coarse (Granite is a good assumption)

Volume:

Cement = (280583640000×28)/154 = 51015207300 cm^3

Silica = (280583640000 cm^3×35.7)/154 = 65044389300 cm^3

Granite = (280583640000 cm^3×84)/154 = 153045622000 cm^3

Frag:

Cement = 6 J/cm^3*51015207300 cm^3 = 306091243800 Joules

Silica = 70 J/cm^3*65044389300 cm^3 = 4.55310725e12 Joules

Granite = 103.42 J/cm^3*153045622000 cm^3 = 1.58279782e13 Joules

Total Energy = 306091243800+4.55310725e12+1.58279782e13 Joules = 4.9443539 Kilotons, Small Town level+

Melting:

Specific Heat Capacity:

Silica = 730 J/kg-°C

Alumina = 880 J/kg-°C

Granite = 790 J/kg-°C

Melting point:

Granite = 1237.5 °C Average

Silica = 1600 °C

Alumina = 2050 °C Average

Latent heat of fusion:

Granite = 335000 J/Kg

Silica = 50210 J/mol

(So: Molar Mass = 60.0843 g/mol = 3099121156065 mol)

Alumina = 620000 J/mol

(So: Molar Mass = 101.96 g/mol = 928067727000 mol)

Total Energy (No Cement) = (((790)*(121363640)*(2050-25)) + ((121363640)*(335000))) + (((730)*(51579550)*(2050-25)) + ((3099121156065)*(50210))) + (((880)*(9102272.72)*(2050-25)) + ((928067727000)*(620000))) = 7.3133614000828819e17 Joules, or 174.793533 Megatons, Mountain level (And that's without Cement)

Destroying a Plane

403500 lbs = 183024.521 Kgs

Percentages:

4% Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) = 7320.98084 kg

13% Steel = 23793.1877 kg

81% Aluminum (2024-T3) = 148249.862 kg

Titanium Ti-6Al-4V = 4430 kg/m3

Steel = 7850 kg/m3

Aluminum 2024-T3 = 2780 kg/m3

Titanium = 1652591.61 cm3

Steel = 3030979.32 cm3

Aluminum = 53327288.5 cm3


Fragmentation=

Titanium = 550 MPa = 550 J/cc

Steel = 208 J/cc

Aluminum = 40000 PSI = 275.79 megapascals = 275.79 J/cc

Total Fragmentation = 1.6246502e10 Joules, or 3.88300717 Tons = Large Building level

Note: Shooting a plane down does not equal fragmentation. Fragmentation would apply if the plane were torn apart completely.

Destroying a Table

Square table

They are between 36 to 44 inches in length. The average of that is 40 inches, or 101.6 cm.

Thickness of the table-top ranges from 3/4 inches to 1 3/4 inches. I'll take the average again, 1.25 inches or 3.175 cm.

101.6*101.6*3.175 = 32 774.128 cm^3

This is a low-ball since it doesn't account for the table legs. Assuming the table is made out of wood:

Fragmentation: 32774.128*8.34 = 2.7333622752e5 Joules, Wall level

Violent fragmentation: 32774.128*18.34 = 6.0107750752e5 Joules, Wall level

Pulverization: 32774.128*46.935 = 1.53825369768e6 Joules, Wall level

Rectangular table

36 to 40 inches wide, and 48 inches for a four-people table. I'll take 38 inches as the width.

48 inches is 121.92 cm. 38 inches is 96.25 cm. The thickness is 3.175 cm as said above.

121.92*96.25*3.175 = 37 257.99 cm^3

Fragmentation: 37257.99*8.34 = 3.107316366e5 Joules, Wall level

Violent fragmentation: 37257.99*18.34 = 6.833115366e5 Joules, Wall level

Pulverization: 37257.99*46.935 = 1.74870376065e6 Joules, Wall level

Round table

According to the same website above, round tables are around the same size as square tables. So, let's say a diameter of 101.6 cm.

pi*(101.6/2)^2*3.175 = 25 740.74 cm^3

Fragmentation: 25740.74*8.34 = 2.146777716e5 Joules, Wall level

Violent fragmentation: 25740.74*18.34 = 4.720851716e5 Joules, Wall level

Pulverization: 25740.74*46.935 = 1.2081416319e6 Joules, Wall level

Blowing up Cannons

This is about blowing up 16th century cannons.

According to Wikipedia, by the 16th century they could weigh about 9100 kg and were largely cast iron.

Density of cast iron is = 7.8 g/cm^3

9100000 g / 7.8 g/cm^3 = 1166666.667 cm^3 of iron

Grey cast iron has a frag energy of 400 J/cc, a violent frag. energy of 613.5 J/cc and a pulverization energy of 827 J/cc.

Frag (400 J/cc): 1166666.667*400 = 466,666,666.8 J or 0.111536 tons of TNT (Small Building level)

V. Frag (613.5 J/cc): 1166666.667*613.5 = 715,750,000.2045 J or 0.17106836 tons of TNT (Small Building level+)

Pulverization (827 J/cc): 1166666.667*827 = 964,833,333.609 J or 0.2306 tons of TNT (Small Building level+)

Destroying Gravestones

Description: Destroying a commonly sized gravestone

Requirements: The gravestone in question needs to be of a regular size. The gravestone needs to be made out of stone or concrete depending on the result used.

Results/Calculation: A common gravestone has a volume of 14158.423 cm^3 (converting from inches). We'll assume concrete since that's a common material and presumably they're all at least relatively similar in durability.

Frag: 6 j/cc * v = 84950.538 Joules, Wall level

V. Frag: 17 * v = 240693.191 Joules, Wall level

Pulv: 40 j/cc * v = 566336.920 Joules, Wall level

Ordinary rock was also commonly used before concrete became mainstream, so...

Frag: 8 J/cc * v = 113267.384 J, Wall level

V. Frag: 69 J/cc * v = 976931.187 J, Wall level

Pulv: 214 J/cc * v = 3029902.552 J, Wall level

Destroying Snow-tipped Mountains

Description: We calculate the energy necessary to destroy a snow-tipped mountain in various climates and by various methods.

Requirements: The mountain needs to be destroyed in the fashion the end specifies. To qualify for cold climate ends, the mountain can be in a cold but not in a snow-covered region. To qualify for the mild climate, it should be in a mild, not too cold, climate like the central European one. To qualify for the tropical, the mountain needs to be in a region of hot tropical climate like commonly found near the equator. Note that the height of the mountains should be taken as the measurement from sea or, at most, ground level.

Results:

Cold Climate:

  • Fragmentation: 1.4476458947741767e16J (Low 7-B+)
  • Violent Fragmentation: 1.2485945842427274e17J (7-B)
  • Pulverization: 3.8787862193105597e17J (7-B+)
  • Vaporization: 4.6505624369620427e19J (6-C)

Mild Climate:

  • Fragmentation: 1.3089969389957472e17J (7-B)
  • Violent Fragmentation: 1.129009859883832e18J (7-A)
  • Pulverization: 3.5072936734217302e18J (7-A+)
  • Vaporization: 4.2051526665238379e20J (High 6-C)

Tropical Climate:

  • Fragmentation: 8.1544016674617632e17J (7-A)
  • Violent Fragmentation: 7.0331714381857708e18J (High 7-A)
  • Pulverization: 2.1848699967755362e19J (6-C)
  • Vaporization: 2.6196015356720914e21J (High 6-C+)

Calculation: We will calc the power necessary to bust snow-tipped mountains. Now, a mountain being snow-tipped means nothing if its winter obviously, but the permanent snow line, i.e., the height which a mountain needs to have to always have snow on the tip, can be used.

All that one needs to know for that is the approximate climate for the region. Then one can simply look up the snow line altitude for a comparable climate on Earth and use that.

I will do three ends.

The first is a cold climate. With cold climate I mean regions that are cold, but not arctic. One obviously can't use this method if the place is so cold that it could be snowing year-round. For this end I will use the snowline of Southern Scandinavia at least 1200m height.

Second, I will do a mild climate. For that I will use the northern side of the alps, with the snow line being at least 2500m high.

Third I will do tropical climate for places that are really hot. For that I will use the at least 4600m snowline of the New Guinea Highlands.

Now, we still need to get a width for the mountain. For angle of repose reasons I think most long-standing big mountains won't have an average angle of more than 45°. Hence, I will assume that the radius of the mountain is equal to its height.

With that in mind we can get the volumes.

Cold Climate: 1/3*pi*1200^2*1200 = 1.8095573684677209054e9 m^3 = 1.8095573684677209e15 cm^3

Mild Climate: 1/3*pi*2500^2*2500 = 1.636246173744683978e10 m^3 = 1.636246173744684e16 cm^3

Tropical Climate: 1/3*pi*4600^2*4600 = 1.0193002084327203822e11 m^3 = 1.0193002084327204e17 cm^3

With that we can throw the usual destruction values on it for results:

Cold Climate:

-Fragmentation: 1.8095573684677209e15 * 8 = 1.4476458947741767e16J (Low 7-B+)

-Violent Fragmentation: 1.8095573684677209e15 * 69 = 1.2485945842427274e17J (7-B)

-Pulverization: 1.8095573684677209e15 * 214.35 = 3.8787862193105597e17J (7-B+)

-Vaporization: 1.8095573684677209e15 * 25700 = 4.6505624369620427e19J (6-C)

Mild Climate:

-Fragmentation: 1.636246173744684e16 * 8 = 1.3089969389957472e17J (7-B)

-Violent Fragmentation: 1.636246173744684e16 * 69 = 1.129009859883832e18J (7-A)

-Pulverization: 1.636246173744684e16 * 214.35 = 3.5072936734217302e18J (7-A+)

-Vaporization: 1.636246173744684e16 * 25700 = 4.2051526665238379e20J (High 6-C)

Tropical Climate:

-Fragmentation: 1.0193002084327204e17 * 8 = 8.1544016674617632e17J (7-A)

-Violent Fragmentation: 1.0193002084327204e17 * 69 = 7.0331714381857708e18J (High 7-A)

-Pulverization: 1.0193002084327204e17 * 214.35 = 2.1848699967755362e19J (6-C)

-Vaporization: 1.0193002084327204e17 * 25700 = 2.6196015356720914e21J (High 6-C+)

Destroying a Sink/Toilet

As title, note that this is for porcelain ones, some have steel in them which would be higher, so the feat can be used for that variety as a low-ball. This calculation assumes porcelain's destruction values are similar to this site's values for destroying ceramic, since porcelain is a kind of ceramic.

Wall-mounted sink: Roughly 11 kg or 11000 g. Porcelain is 2.403 g/cm^3

  • 11000 / 2.403 = 4577.61 cm^3
  • Frag: 4577.61 x 3.4 = 15563.874 J
  • VFrag: 4577.61 x 4.53 = 20736.5733 J

Toilet

  • One Piece Toilet/Whole Two Piece Toilet: 40 kg
  • 40000 / 2.403 = 16645.85 cm^3
  • Frag: 16645.85 x 3.4 = 56595.89 J
  • VFrag: 16645.85 x 4.53 = 75405.70 J
  • Two Piece Toilet Bowl: 25 kg
  • 25000 / 2.403 = 10403.66 cm^3
  • Frag: 10403.66 x 3.4 = 35372.44 J
  • VFrag: 10403.66 x 4.53 = 47128.58 J

All Wall level

Destroying New York City

NYC has a land area of 783.84 km^2, a total area of 1,213.37 km^2 and a metro area of 34,490 km^2

  • 783.84 km^2 = 783,840,000 m^2
  • 1,213.37 km^2 = 1,213,370,000 m^2
  • 34,490 km^2 = 34,490,000,000 m^2

Lets assume NYC is vaguely circular (it's not but ehhh) and derive a radius from it.

  • 783.84 km^2 = 783,840,000 m^2 (15,795.696286847 meters in radius)
  • 1,213.37 km^2 = 1,213,370,000 m^2 (19,652.675812693 meters in radius)
  • 34,490 km^2 = 34,490,000,000 m^2 (104,778.37550983 meters in radius)

In order:

  • Land area = 15.79 km
  • Total area = 19.65 km
  • Metro area = 104.77 km

R = Y^(1/3)*0.28

R = Radius in km

Y = Yield in Kilotons

15.79 = Y^(1/3)*0.28

Y = 179,337.989204 kilotons (179.337 Megatons)

19.65 = Y^(1/3)*0.28

Y = 345,631.702123 kilotons (345.631 Megatons)

104.77 = Y^(1/3)*0.28

Y = 52,388,593.355184 kilotons (52.38 Gigatons)

Destroying the Statue of Liberty

This says that the statue of liberty is 130 tons of iron, and 88 tons of copper.

Iron has a density of 7,874 KG/M^3, while copper has a density of 8,950 KG/M^3. This would mean the volume would be 16.5100330201 and 9.83240223464 meters cubed of copper, or for our purposes, 16510033.0201 and 9832402.23464 centimeters

The shear strength of Copper is 150, so, that combined with the J/CC of 20 for Iron makes for...

1805060995.6 Joules, 0.43141993202 Tons, Building level

The Statue of Liberty is pretty hollow so it's not really surprising. Then again, I'm not 100% sold on how dense the copper came out, further research may be required to make absolute sure it's on point.

Destroying Britannia

Britannia Diameter = 899.99 Km

Y = ((x/0.28)^3)

Y is in Teratons, x is Radius in Kilometers

Britannia Radius = 449.995 Km

Y = ((449.995/0.28)^3)/1000000000 = 4.2 Teratons (Small Country level+)

Destroying a Continent

This calculation is related to this blog

[Calculation 1]: This calculation is Therefir's suggestion for destroying Australia; credit to Therefir on this calculation:

Diameter of Australia = 4000 km

Explosion radius = 2000 km or 2000000 m

W = R^3*((27136*P+8649)^(1/2)/13568-93/13568)^2/1000000

W is yield in megatons of TNT, R is radius in meters, and P is pressure of the shockwave in bars, the standard overpressure is 20 psi or 1.37895 bars.

W = 2000000^3*((27136*1.37895+8649)^(1/2)/13568-93/13568)^2/1000000 = 642947485.59 Megatons of TNT, or 642.95 Teratons of TNT (Large Country level+)

[Calculation 2]: This calculation is for destroying Continental United States; I found that that Australia isn't largely considered a proper continent on its own worldwide. So, I chose the Continental United States since it would approximate a small continent. This case could also apply for a similar feat in the LN since Leon can sink a continent larger than Australia.

Diameter of United States (contiguous) = 2800 miles or 4506.163 km.

Explosion radius = 2253.0815 km or 2253081.5 m

W = R^3*((27136*P+8649)^(1/2)/13568-93/13568)^2/1000000

W is yield in megatons of TNT, R is radius in meters, and P is pressure of the shockwave in bars, the standard overpressure is 20 psi or 1.37895 bars.

W =2253081.5^3*((27136*1.37895+8649)^(1/2)/13568-93/13568)^2/1000000 = 9.1921e8 Megatons of TNT, or 919.21 Teratons of TNT (Continental level)

New: [Calculation 3]: This method use a method proposed by Ugarik where Antarctica is used as basis.

Area of Antarctica = 5.483 million mi² = 1.42e+13 m²

R = (Area/pi)^0.5

R = (1.42e13/3.14)^0.5 = 2.12e6 m

Explosion radius = 2.12e6 m

W = R^3*((27136*P+8649)^(1/2)/13568-93/13568)^2/1000000

W is yield in megatons of TNT, R is radius in meters, and P is pressure of the shockwave in bars, the standard overpressure is 20 psi or 1.37895 bars.

W = 2.12e6^3*((27136*1.37895+8649)^(1/2)/13568-93/13568)^2/1000000 = 7.65e8 Megatons of TNT, or 765 Teratons of TNT (Continental level)

Star feats

Average Neutron Stars GBE

Gravitational Binding Energy Equation for stars is (3*G*M^2)/(r(5-n))

The average neutron star is 1.4 Solar Masses with a radius of 10 kilometers as stated here and there.

  • Solar mass is 1.989 × 10^30 kilograms
  • Mass of the average star is (1.4*1.989 × 10^30) kilograms
  • Radius is 10000 meters.
  • Assuming a n (which can go from 0.5 to 1) is 0.5
  • G is a constant of 6.67408x10^-11

Calculation

  • (3*6.67408*10^-11*((1.4*1.989 * 10^30))^2)/((5-0.5)*10000) = 3.4 × 1046 Joules (Solar System Level)

Destroying the Sun from Earth

Description: The sun gets destroyed by an omnidirectional explosion starting on Earth,

Requirements: The explosion has to be omnidirectional, and its epicenter needs to be on planet Earth. The explosion has to completely destroy the Sun.

Results: 1.0541206e+47 Joules or Solar System level

Calculation: Using our Earth and our Sun

  • Radius of the sun: 695500km
  • Frontal area of the sun: 1.5188816e+18m^2
  • GBE of the Sun: 5.693e41 J

Distance between sun and Earth: 149600000km

Area of the explosion = 4pi(149600000000)^2 = 2.8123738e+23 m^2

  • E = 2.8123738e+23/1.5188816e+18*5.693e41
  • E = 1.0541206e+47 Joules or (Solar System level)

Creating or destroying a pocket realm

Creating a pocket dimension containing a star at Astronomical unit distance

  • It yields: 8.1445131895776341678369398784*10^44 Joules or 8.14 Foe (Large Star level)

Creating a pocket dimension containing a starry sky

  • Average star distance that human can see in starry night: (4 to 4000 light years)/2 = 2002 light years = 1.894e19 meters
  • The Gravitational Binding Energy of the sun for the average stars = 5.693e41 Joules
  • The radius of the sun for the average star: 695510000 m
  • 4*5.693e41*(1.894e19/695510000)^2 = 1.688e63 Joules, (Multi-Solar System level)
    • It yields: 1.688e63 Joules (Multi-Solar System level)

Creating a pocket dimension containing a moon

Description: Creating a pocket dimension which contains an earthlike planet and a moon.

Requirements: See Creation Feats

Results: 2.8373406e+34 Joules (5-A)

Calculation: See here

Mass-energy Conversion Feats - Energy Constructs

While we know that E = mc^2, matter-energy conversion should only be used for a calculation if it is clearly stated that this is the progress used. So get over here and familiarize yourself about the criteria before applying the below table.

Mass-energy Conversion - The Tally

Object Mass (kg) Energy (J) Tier
Pistol round 28 gr. (1.8 g) SS195LF JHP 0.0018 1.61773E+14 Town
FN Five-seven pistol 0.744 6.68663E+16 City
120mm Main Gun M829A3 ammo 10 8.9874E+17 Mountain
Rheinmetall 120mm Main Gun 4507 4.05062E+20 Large Island
Arrow 0.018 1.61773E+15 Large Town
Bow 18.18181818 1.63407E+18 Mountain
European Longsword 1.4 1.25824E+17 City
Sledgehammer 9.1 8.17854E+17 Mountain
Boxing glove 0.8 7.18992E+16 City
Arm of a grown man 3.534 3.17615E+17 City+
A grown human 62 5.57219E+18 Large Mountain
All grown man on Earth 3.85E+11 3.46015E+28 Multi-Continent
Theoretical mass of all life forms on Earth 1.01835E+13 9.15232E+29 Moon+
Theoretical mass of all life forms in our universe 3.05505E+35 2.7457E+52 Solar System
Private car 1311.363636 1.17858E+20 Island
M1A2 SEPv2 Abrams 64600 5.80586E+21 Small Country
Our Moon 7.342E+22 6.59855E+39 Dwarf Star
Our Earth 5.97237E+24 5.36761E+41 Small Star+
Our Sun 1.9885E+30 1.78715E+47 Solar System
Our Solar System 1.99125E+30 1.78962E+47 Solar System
Our galaxy - the Milky Way 2.28674E+42 2.05519E+59 Multi-Solar System

Note: Source for mass of all life forms on Earth

I assume there are 100*10^9 planets that has a similar mass of life forms on Earth, and 300*10^9 such galaxies in the universe.

Mass-energy Conversion - Quick application

1. Some novice magician created a longsword as an energy construct and is accepted as a mass-energy conversion feat.

Energy used = 1.25824E+17 J = 30072576.9 tons of TNT (City level)

2. Some crazy doomsday robot attempted to turn all Earth life forms into energy, which the hero and the rival/nemesis stopped.

Energy yield by the doomsday robot = 9.15232E+29 J = 2.18746E+20 tons of TNT (Moon level+)

Energy countered by the hero and the rival/nemesis individually = 1.09373E+20 tons of TNT = 4.57616E+29 J (Moon level)

3. Some crazy cosmic tyrant snapped and decimated half of all life forms away into energy from the universe.

Energy possibly used = 50% * 2.7457E+52 J = 1.37285E+52 J = 3.28119E+42 tons of TNT (Solar System level)

Attacking a Person such that The Person Flew across a Distance before falling onto the Ground

We assume an average 2016 Japanese male at 25-29 is picked.

The target weighs at 66.82 kg and stands at 1.7185 m.

To make a target fall, the center of gravity is likely falling from roughly half his own height to roughly ground floor.

Height to fall = 1.7185/2 = 0.85925 m

By PE to KE formula, mgh = 0.5 m v^2
(9.81)(0.85925) = (0.5) v^2
v = ((2)(9.81)(0.85925))^0.5 = 4.105908547
time to fall to this speed = 4.105908547 / 9.81 = 0.418543175 s

Now, the kinetic energy from the yield of an attack should 1-to-1 scale to the target hit who flies at a distance before hitting the ground - in 0.418543175 s.

AP of an attack = Kinetic energy carried by the target = 0.5 x mass x (velocity)^2

The table below lists out the energy required to send a person flying at a speed across a distance using the Newtonian energy model.

Range (m) Speed (m/s) Speed (Mach) Energy in Joules Energy in Tons of TNT Tier
0.5 1.194619886 0.003482857 47.679968 1.13958E-08 Average human
0.724105801 1.730062379 0.005043914 100 2.39006E-08 Athletic human
0.75 1.791929829 0.005224285 107.279928 2.56405E-08 Athletic human
1 2.389239772 0.006965714 190.719872 4.55831E-08 Athletic human
1.024040244 2.446677679 0.007133171 200 4.78011E-08 Athletic human+
1.254188037 2.99655594 0.008736315 300 7.17017E-08 Peak human/Street
1.5 3.583859657 0.01044857 429.119712 1.02562E-07 Peak human/Street
2 4.778479543 0.013931427 762.8794879 1.82333E-07 Peak human/Street
2.092715875 5 0.014577259 835.25 1.9963E-07 Peak human/Street
3.222782448 7.7 0.02244898 1980.8789 4.73441E-07 Peak human/Street
4.101723116 9.8 0.028571429 3208.6964 7.66897E-07 Peak human/Street
5.23597512 12.51 0.036472303 5228.668341 1.24968E-06 Peak human/Street
6 14.33543863 0.041794282 6865.915391 1.64099E-06 Peak human/Street
6.333339138 15.13186576 0.044116227 7650 1.82839E-06 Peak human+/Street+
8.868448661 21.18885025 0.061775074 15000 3.58509E-06 Wall
10 23.89239772 0.069657136 19071.9872 4.55831E-06 Wall
14.3560309 34.3 0.1 39306.5309 9.39449E-06 Wall
50 119.4619886 0.348285681 476799.68 0.000113958 Wall
71.78015452 171.5 0.5 982663.2725 0.000234862 Wall
100 238.9239772 0.696571362 1907198.72 0.000455831 Wall
129.2042781 308.7 0.9 3183829.003 0.000760953 Wall
143.560309 343 1 3930653.09 0.000939449 Wall
157.91634 377.3 1.1 4756090.239 0.001136733 Wall
234.2736864 559.7360091 1.631883408 10467500 0.002501793 Wall+
331.19431 791.3026175 2.307004716 20920000 0.005 Small building
358.9007726 857.5 2.5 24566581.81 0.005871554 Small building
500 1194.619886 3.48285681 47679968 0.011395786 Small building
717.8015452 1715 5 98266327.25 0.023486216 Small building
1000 2389.239772 6.96571362 190719872 0.045583143 Small building
1435.60309 3430 10 393065309 0.093944864 Small building
1672.449284 3995.882346 11.64980276 533460000 0.1275 Small building+
2341.897425 5595.354468 16.31298679 1046000000 0.25 Building
3589.007726 8575 25 2456658181 0.587155397 Building
4967.914649 11869.53926 34.60507073 4707000000 1.125 Building+
5000 11946.19886 34.8285681 4767996800 1.139578585 Building+
6623.886199 15826.05235 46.14009431 8368000000 2 Large building
7178.015452 17150 50 9826632725 2.348621588 Large building
9264.4532 22135.00005 64.53352784 16369504368 3.912405442 Large building
10000 23892.39772 69.6571362 19071987198 4.55831434 Large building
11941.38067 28530.82162 83.18023795 27196000000 6.5 Large building+
14356.0309 34300 100 39306530900 9.394486353 Large building+
14811.45982 35388.12887 103.1723874 41840000000 11 City block
34893.48575 83368.90391 243.0580289 2.32212E+11 55.5 City block+
46837.94849 111907.0894 326.2597357 4.184E+11 100 Multi City Block
50000 119461.9886 348.285681 4.768E+11 113.9578585 Multi City Block
100000 238923.9772 696.571362 1.9072E+12 455.831434 Multi City Block
109844.7259 262445.3878 765.1469031 2.3012E+12 550 Multi City Block+
143560.309 343000 1000 3.93065E+12 939.4486353 Multi City Block+
148114.5982 353881.2887 1031.723874 4.184E+12 1000 Small town
273109.8245 652524.8547 1902.404824 1.42256E+13 3400 Small town+
356707.1885 852259.0015 2484.720121 2.42672E+13 5800 Town
500000 1194619.886 3482.85681 4.768E+13 11395.78585 Town
1000000 2389239.772 6965.71362 1.9072E+14 45583.1434 Town
1077272.815 2573863.055 7503.973922 2.21334E+14 52900 Town+
1255629.525 3000000 8746.355685 3.0069E+14 71866.6348 Town+
1481145.982 3538812.887 10317.23874 4.184E+14 100000 Large town
3473595.227 8299251.868 24196.06958 2.3012E+15 550000 Large town+
4683794.849 11190708.94 32625.97357 4.184E+15 1000000 Small city
6371000 15221846.58 44378.56147 7.74125E+15 1850203.426 Small city

The table below lists out the energy required to send a person flying at a speed across a distance using the relativistic energy model.

Range (m) Speed (m/s) Speed (Mach) Energy in Joules Energy in Tons of TNT Tier
1255629.525 3000000 8746.355685 3.00713E+14 71872.03271 Town+
1481145.982 3538812.887 10317.23874 4.18444E+14 100010.4517 Large town
3473595.227 8299251.868 24196.06958 2.30252E+15 550316.3282 Large town+
4683794.849 11190708.94 32625.97357 4.18838E+15 1001046.261 Small city
6371000 15221846.58 44378.56147 7.75625E+15 1853788.582 Small city

One thing: I include a dataset for a distance of 9264.4532 m as the farthest horizon a human eye can see. Working:
Average US human height = (1.753 + 1.615)/2 = 1.684 m
Earth mean radius = 6371000 m
For two identical humans to see each other at a distance, the farthest distance the one would travel away from the other standing still yet seeing each other can see each other = Arc(G1-M-G2) = 2 times Arc(G1-M)
G1-M = OM * angle(G1-O-M)
cos(angle(G1-O-M)) = OM / (H1-G1 + G1-O) = 6371000 / (6371000 + 1.684)
angle(G1-O-M) = 0.00072708 rad
Arc(G1-M-G2) = 4632.2266 * 2 = 9264.4532 m

Picture
Earth horizon and radius.png

Forest Feats

Destroying/Creating a forest

The destruction value for a Ceiba pentandra tree is 9.1700460e7 Joules, which will be a low end for destruction.

The destruction value for a Dalbergia nigra tree is 6.1832194e8 Joules, this will be a high end for destruction.

For creating a tree, a white oak tree will be used since they are somewhat common and are not overly large. A White Oak = 30 m height, 1.27 meter diameter. Plugging this into the formula for volume of a cylinder since tree trunks are cylindrical gives a volume of 38 m^3. This website says that the density of oak wood is 704 kg/m^3, multiply that by the volume gives a mass of 26,582 kg per tree.

According to this site, a forest has to be at least 1.24 acres in area.

This site provides information on how many trees are in an acre of land; I will be using reforestation values as those make the most sense.

Now, I will use the 10 x 10 value for reforestation, so that is 435 trees per acre as a minimum.

1.24 acres x 435 trees/acre = 538.4 trees.

Energy to destroy a small forest

Low-End: 538.4 x 9.1700460e7 Joules = 4.946e10 Joules (City Block level)

High-End: 538.4 x 6.1832194e8 = 3.335e11 Joules (City Block level+)

Energy to create a small forest

538.4 x 26,752 kg = 1.44e7 kg, which according to the table on the Creation Feats page is (Small Building level)

Splitting a forest with pulverization

Using Jasonsith's values for sloping a tree, this is the energy to split every tree in half.

Low-End: Small trees: 12,622.28361 Joules

High-End: Big trees: 201,956.5378 Joules

Number of Trees: 538.4

Low-End Total: 6,795,837.495624 Joules (Wall level)

High-End Total: 108,733,399.95152 Joules (Small Building level)

Splitting a forest with shearing

This is the value for splitting a forest via shearing the trees.

First some data:

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Oak Wood: 5.50 MPa

Shear Strength = 0.6 x Ultimate Tensile Strength

Using Jasonsith's diameters for the trees: 1.27m, and .3175m respectively.

Area of Circle: pi*r2

Number of trees: 538.4

Calculation to shear tree:

Area of the tree cut: pi*r2 (diameter / cos (30 degrees) / 2)

Small Tree: 0.091421...(rounded to 0.09142m2)

Big Tree: 1.462738... (rounded to 1.46274m2)

0.09142m2 x 5,500,000 Pa x 0.6 = 301,686 Newtons

1.46274m2 x 5,500,000 Pa x 0.6 = 4,827,042 Newtons

As the entire diameter of the tree was sheared, this is what the force is multiplied by as the entire cut needs to follow through the entire diameter of the tree despite slowing down due to the friction caused by the wood during cutting:

Small Tree: 301,686N x .3175m = 95,785.305 Joules (Wall level)

Big Tree: 4,827,042N x 1.27m = 6,130,343.24 Joules (Wall level)

Calculation to split a forest via shearing:

Low-End: Small trees: 51,570,808.21 Joules (Small Building level)

High-End: Big trees: 3,300,576,800.416 Joules (Building level)

Miscellaneous Feats

Digging up from the Underground

Sometimes characters (usually monsters) burst out from underground.

Assuming the character's height is the height, and that the character's shoulder width is the width:

Height: 175 cm.

Width: 61 cm, 30.5 for the radius.

So the volume is 5.11e5 cubic centimeters.

cc refers to cubic centimeters.

Rock has a frag energy of 8 J/cc, a violent frag energy of 69 J/cc and a pulverization energy of 214.35 J/cc.

Steel has a frag energy of 208 J/cc, a violent frag energy of 568.5 J/cc and a pulverization energy of 1000 J/cc.

Concrete has a frag energy of 6 J/cc, a violent frag energy of 17-20 J/cc and a pulverization energy of 40 J/cc.

Fragmentation:

5.11e5*8 = 4.088e6 Joules, Wall level

Violent fragmentation:

5.11e5*69 = 3.5259e7 Joules, or 0.008 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Pulverization:

5.11e5*214.35 = 1.0953285e+8 Joules or 0.02618 tons of TNT, Small Building level

If the ground is made out of steel:

Fragmentation:

5.11e5*208 = 1.06288e8 Joules, or 0.025 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Violent fragmentation:

5.11e5*568.5 = 2.905035e8 Joules, or 0.069 Tons of TNT, Small Building level

Pulverization:

5.11e5*1000 = 5.11e+8 Joules, or 0.1221319 tons of TNT, Small Building level

If the ground is made out of concrete:

Fragmentation:

5.11e5*6 = 3066000 Joules or 0.0007328 tons of TNT, Wall level

Violent Fragmentation:

5.11e5*17-20 = 8.687e+6-1.022e+7 Joules or 0.002076-0.00244264 tons of TNT, Wall level

Pulverization:

5.11e5*40 = 2.044e+7 Joules or 0.0048853 tons of TNT, Wall level+

  • Please be noted that this is only for a quick bursting out, not slow digging.

Throwing a Person to the Horizon

Another common gag in fiction is that a person is punched/thrown so hard they reach the horizon/they fly out of sight.

On a normal day the visibility is usually 20 km.

Since an angle of 45 degrees requires the least force, that will be used as a low-ball.

Range of trajectory formula for 45 degrees angle is R = V^2/g. So now we can extract initial velocity from it: V = sqrt(R*g).

V = sqrt(20000*9.81) = 442.95 m/s

KE = 70*442.95^2*0.5 = 6.8671645875e6 Joules, Wall level

Throwing a Person above the Clouds

Cloud height is usually 2000 m.

Formula is (close to earth): initial speed = sqrt(2*9.81*peak height). So in this case sqrt(2*9.81*2000) = 198 m/s

Using 70 kg for the human weight: 0.5*70* 198^2 = 1.37214e6 Joules, Wall level

Punching a Hole through Doors

The average surface area of a human fist is 25 cm^2. The average thickness of a door is 3.334 cm thick. 83.35 cm^3. Values taken from here. For pulverization I'll use the average value.

Wood Door

Fragmentation: 83.35*8.34 = 695.139 Joules, Street level

Violent fragmentation: 83.35*18.34 = 1528.639 Joules, Street level

Pulverization: 83.35*46.935 = 3912.03225 Joules, Street level

Steel Door

Fragmentation: 83.35*208 = 1.73368e4 Joules, Wall level

Violent fragmentation: 83.35*568.5 = 4.7384475e4 Joules, Wall level

Pulverization: 83.35*655 = 5.459425e4 Joules, Wall level

Punching through a Wall

Walls are 3/4 inch thick. That's 1.905 cm.

The human fist is 25 cm^2.

25 cm^2*1.905 = 47.625 cm^3

Wood Wall

Fragmentation: 47.625*8.34 = 397.1925 Joules, Street level

Violent fragmentation: 47.625*18.34 = 873.4425 Joules, Street level

Pulverization: 47.625*46.935 = 2235.279375 Joules, Street level

Steel Wall

Fragmentation: 47.625*208 = 9906 Joules, Street level+

Violent fragmentation: 47.625*568.5 = 2.70748125e4 Joules, Wall level

Pulverization: 47.625*655 = 3.1194375e4 Joules, Wall level

General Calc: KE and Humans

Description: Kinetic Energy humans get from moving at a certain speed.

Requirements: The character of human-like weight need to move at the specified speed and fulfill the Kinetic Energy Feats standards. This means that usually they must demonstrate performing a bodycheck or similar at specifically that speed. (Performing a bodycheck or going at that speed separately doesn't suffice)

Results/Calculation: Average Human = 62 kg

With that outta the way, let's go.

Peak Human: 9.8 m/s Energy: 2977.24 Joules, Street level

Superhuman: 12.51 m/s Energy: 4851.5 Joules, Street level

Subsonic: 34.3 m/s Energy: 36471.19 Joules, Wall level

Subsonic+: 171.5 m/s Energy: 9.118e5 Joules, Wall level

Transonic: 308.7 m/s Energy: 2.954e6 Joules, Wall level

Supersonic: 377.3 m/s Energy: 4.413e6 Joules, Wall level

Supersonic+: 857.5 m/s Energy: 2.279e7 Joules, Small Building level

Hypersonic: 1715 m/s Energy: 9.118e7 Joules, Small Building level

Hypersonic+: 3430 m/s Energy: 3.647e8 Joules, Small Building level

High Hypersonic: 8575 m/s Energy: 2.279e9 Joules, Building level

High Hypersonic+: 17150 m/s Energy: 9.118e9 Joules, Large Building level

Massively Hypersonic: 34300 m/s Energy: 3.647e10 Joules, Large Building level+

Massively Hypersonic+: 343000 m/s Energy: 3.647e12 Joules, Multi-City Block level

Sub-Relativistic: 0.01 c Energy: 2.786e14 Joules, Town level+

Sub-Relativistic+: 0.05 c Energy: 6.978e15 Joules, Small City level

Relativistic: 0.1 c Energy: 2.807e16 Joules, City level

Relativistic+: 0.5 c Energy: 8.620e17 Joules, Mountain level

Peak Speed for Kinetic Energy: 0.92 c Energy: 8.646e18 Joules, Large Mountain level

That is all. Reminder that Sub-Rel and above requires usage of Relativistic Kinetic Energy.

Punching through a car roof

The roof of a car is normally 20 gauge, or 0.09525 centimeters

the surface area of a human fist is 25cm2

25cm2 x 0.09525cm = 2.38125cm3

some of the more commonly used materials for car roofs are steel and aluminum

steel roofs

the frag value of steel is 208j/cm3 while the v.frag value is 568.5j/cm3 and the pulv value is on average 655j/cm3

(frag) 2.38125cm3 x 208j = 495.3 Joules (Street level)

(v.frag) 2.38125cm3 x 568.5j = 1353.74 Joules (Street level)

(pulv) 2.38125cm3 x 655j = 1559.71 Joules (Street level)

aluminum roofs

the frag value of aluminum is 48.75j/cm3 while the v.frag value is 234j/cm3 and the pulv value is 280j/cm3

(frag) 2.38125cm3 x 48.75j = 116.085 Joules (Athlete level)

(v.frag) 2.38125cm3 x 234j = 557.2125 Joules (Street level)

(pulv) 2.38125cm3 x 280j = 666.75 Joules (Street level)

Punching through a skull

Gonna calc the energy needed to punch through a skull

Average skull thickness: 6.5 millimeters or 0.65 centimeters

Average surface area of fist: 25cm^2

25cm^2 x 0.65 = 16.25^3

Shear strength of bone: 51.6 MPa

Compressive strength of bone: 170 MPa

(Fragmentation) 16.25 x 51.6 = 838.5 Joules (Street level)

(Pulverization) 16.25 x 170 = 2762.5 Joules (Street level)

Shaking the entire Universe

Surface area of the universe is 2.4320086e+54m². This calculation assumes that the energy spreads across the universe like an earthquake. Said energy is listed out on the Earthquake Power Chart.

  • Magnitude 2: 6.309573e+7 times 2.4320086e+54, 1.5344936e+62 Joules/3.66752772e+52 Tons of TNT/1.53449357983 Exafoe, Multi Solar System level
  • Magnitude 3: 1.995262e+9 times 2.4320086e+54, 4.8524943e+63 Joules/1.1597739e+54 Tons of TNT/48.5249434325 Exafoe, Multi Solar System level
  • Magnitude 4: 6.309573e+10 times 2.4320086e+54, 1.5344936e+65 Joules/3.66752772e+55 Tons of TNT/1.53449357983 Zettafoe, Multi Solar System level

Illuminating the entire Universe

Utilizing the apparent magnitude of Sirius, the brightest star in the Night-Sky, and this formula, with the distance being 46.5 billion light-years (4.399e26 m).

2.747966869e+47 Joules/6.56779844e+37 Tons of TNT/2.75 KiloFOE, Solar System level

Speed Feats

Changing Clothes Fast

Description: Characters taking off their clothes in one or two seconds.

Requirements: This should only be used if the clothes are taken off in a realistic fashion, i.e. not ripped off or taken off in a minor show of toon force.

Results:

  • 1 second: 8.4216 m/s
  • 2 seconds: 4.21 m/s

Calculation:

We will assume our person to be roughly 6 feet.

Shirt

Assuming they remove this from top to bottom and in the fastest manor. We start with the shirt. Which we remove it by pulling it over our heads. Meaning our arm is going as far up as it can go likely. For a 6-foot person. Their arm can about land between 1.5 to 2 feet from elbow to fingertip. To make it easier. We will assume the better end of 2 feet. Or 24 inches

So, the actions you have to take off the shirt is to pull it over our heads and it's off. This means the arms should travel roughly 24 inches when lifting to take it off. And 24 more inches to get back its normal place. So roughly 48 inches. Maybe a bit more or less depending on the type and how someone may change their shirt. But this is a decent average

Shirt = 48 inches

Pants/Zipper/Shoes/Socks

So first. We have to assume you unzip them as most pants come with a zipper. The average zipper is about as long as your longest finger. And may be a bit longer or shorter. But the zipper should at least hit 4 inches. We save this for later

Now the action of taking off pants. Average length for a leg hits 31.8898 inches. So, your arm and body would have to travel the entire length of your leg to take them off. Now this is where shoes and socks come in. Assuming you take them off here rather than going all the way back up just to go back down. To take off your shoes. You'll have to go the length of your own foot to pull them off assuming they aren't easy slip off shoes. A foot on average is 12 inches. And you have 2 feet. And do this for socks as well. So, 12 times 2 times 2. 48 inches for your shoes and socks. Then you go back up the distance of your legs. But that's under Pants. Since you travel 31.8898 inches twice. That's 63.7796 inches. And then we add 4 to that for the zipper

Pants = 67.7796 inches

Shoes = 48 inches

Socks = 48 inches

67.7796 + 48 + 48

That's a grand total of 163.7796 Inches.

But wait. Since this also includes putting on the clothes too. We double it to 327.5592 inches. And since we would likely have to both unzip and result when putting on pants. We add 4 more to consider the extra zipping process that putting them on would provide. And a grand total of 331.5592 Inches. Or 27.629933333 feet.

Now for the timeframe.

Timeframe

1 second = 18.8385909088636 MPH or 8.421603679898383987 MPS. Athletic Human

2 second = 9.419295454431818 MPH or 4.2108018399491999872 MPS. Below Average Human

Running around while things are standing still

Description: Speed for characters running around while various things are standing still.

Requirements: For lightning the Lightning Feats standards need to be fulfilled. For light the Laser/Light Beam Dodging Feats standards need to be met. Additionally, the thing in question must be reliably stated to stand completely still out of the perspective of the moving character

Results/Calculation: For reference, this uses the speed of a snail (0.013 m/s) and the average human running speed (6.35 m/s). The equation is as follows:

Person's Speed = (Object's Speed / Object's Apparent Speed) * Person's Apparent Speed

Viewing Lightning as Standing Still

Speed of Lightning = 440000 m/s

Speed to View Lightning as Standing Still = (440000 / 0.013) * 6.35 = 214923076.92 m/s; 0.72c (Relativistic+)

Viewing Light as Standing Still

Speed of Light = 299792458 m/s

Speed to View Light as Standing Still = (299792458 / 0.013) * 6.35 = 146437085254 m/s; 488.46c (Massively FTL)

Traveling Certain Distances

Description: The speed required to travel certain distances in certain timeframes.

Requirements: It must be proven that the character traveled the given distance in the specified timeframe.

Results/Calculation:

Traverse the distance between the Moon and the Earth

Distance between the Earth and the Moon: 384,400 km

  • 1 second: 384399.23 km/s = 1.28c [FTL]
  • 5 seconds: 76879.85 km/s = 0.25c [Relativistic]
  • 10 seconds: 38439.92 km/s = 0.12c [Relativistic]
  • 1 minute: 6406.65 km/s = 0.02137028411 [Sub-Relativistic]
  • 10 minutes: 640665.39 m/s = Mach 1867 [MHS+]
  • 1 hour: 106777.56 m/s = Mach 311 [MHS]

Traveling an Astronomical Unit

One Astronomical Unit is equal to the average distance between the Earth and the Sun: 149597870700 m = 149597870.7 km

  • 1 second: 149597571.50 km/s = 499c [MFTL]
  • 10 seconds: 14959757.15 km/s = 49.9c [FTL+]
  • 1 minute: 2493292.86 km/s = 8.3c [FTL]
  • 10 minutes: 2493292.86 km/s = 8.3c [FTL]
  • 10 minutes: 249329.29 km/s = 0.83c [Relativistic+]
  • 1 hour: 41554.88 km/s = 0.13c [Relativistic]

Travel 1 Light Year

1 Light Year: 9460730472580.8 km

  • 1 second: 9460711551119.85 km/s = 31,557,536c [MFTL+]
  • 10 seconds: 946071155111.99 km/s = 3,155,753c [MFTL+]
  • 1 minute: 15767858525852 km/s = 525,958c [MFTL+]
  • 10 minutes: 1576785258585,20 km/s = 52,595c [MFTL+]
  • 1 hour: 2627975430.87 km/s = 8765c [MFTL+]

Traveling an interstellar distance

Distance from the Sun to Alpha Centauri: 4.37 Light Years = 41343392165178,096 km

  • 1 second: 41343309478393.76 km/s = 137,906,436c [MFTL+]
  • 10 seconds: 4134330947839.38 km/s = 13,790,643c [MFTL+]
  • 1 minute: 68909055157973.23 km/s = 2,298,440c [MFTL+]
  • 10 minutes: 68905515797.32 km/s = 229,844c [MFTL+]
  • 1 hour: 11484252632.89 km/s = 38,307c [MFTL+]

Traveling an Intergalactic distance

Distance from Milky Way to Andromeda: 2,536,802 Light Years = 2400000000000000000000000000 km

  • 1 second: 23999952000000004096 km/s = 80,055,222,736,790c [MFTL+]
  • 10 seconds: 23999952000000000000000 km/s = 8,005,522,273,679 [MFTL+]
  • 1 minute: 39999999200000000000 km/s = 1,334,253,712,279 [MFTL+]
  • 10 minutes: 39999999200000000000000 km/s = 133,425,371,227 [MFTL+]
  • 1 hour: 66666533333333333334 km/s = 22,237,561,871 [MFTL+]

Galaxy Speed Feats

Description: Traveling various distance involving galaxies in various times.

Requirements: The character needs to be proven to move the given distance in the given time.

Results/Calculation:

Milky Way

Distance from Earth to the edge of Milky Way = 25000 light years

1 second

Speed = Distance / Time

Speed = 25000 light years / 1 second

Speed = 788953737500c or 788 billion c (Massively FTL+)

1 minute

Speed = 25000 light years / 60 s

Speed = 13149228958c or 13 billion c (Massively FTL+)

1 hour

Speed = 25000 light years / 3600 s

Speed = 219153815c or 219 million c (Massively FTL+)

1 day

Speed = 25000 light years / 86400 s

Speed = 9131408c or 9 million c (Massively FTL+)

1 week

Speed = 25000 LY / 604800 s

Speed = 1304486c or 1.3 million c (Massively FTL+)

1 month

Speed = 25000 LY / 2,628e+6 s

Speed = 30021 c (Massively FTL+)

1 year

Speed = 2501 c (Massively FTL+)

From Earth to nearest Galaxy

Distance from Earth to Andromeda = 2.537.000 light years

1 second

Speed = Distance / Time

Speed = 2537000 LY / 1 s

Speed = 80063025281529c or 80 trillion c (Massively FTL+)

1 minute

Speed = 2537000 LY / 60 s

Speed = 1334383754692c or 1.3 trillion c (Massively FTL+)

1 hour

Speed = 2537000 LY / 3600 s

Speed = 22239729244c or 22 billion c (Massively FTL+)

1 day

Speed = 2537000 LY / 86400 s

Speed = 926655385c or 926 million c (Massively FTL+)

1 week

Speed = 2537000 LY / 604800 s

Speed = 132379340c or 132 million c (Massively FTL+)

1 month

Speed = 2537000 LY / 2,628e+6 s

Speed = 3046538c or 3 million c (Massively FTL+)

1 year

Speed = 253878.18773 c (Massively FTL+)

From Earth to farthest known Galaxy

Distance from Earth to Abel 2218 = 13 billion light years

1 second

Speed = Distance / Time

Speed = 13 billion LY / 1 s

Speed = 410255943500152960c or 410 quadrillion c (Massively FTL+)

1 minute

Speed = 13 billion LY / 60 s

Speed = 6837599058335884c or 6 quadrillion c (Massively FTL+)

1 hour

Speed = 13 billion LY / 3600 s

Speed = 113959984305598.05c or 113 trillion c (Massively FTL+)

1 day

Speed = 13 billion LY / 86400 s

Speed = 4748332679399.92c or 4 trillion c (Massively FTL+)

1 week

Speed = 13 billion LY / 604800 s

Speed = 678333239914.2742c or 678 billion c (Massively FTL+)

1 month

Speed = 13 billion LY / 2,628e+6 s

Speed = 15610956754.19152c or 15 billion c (Massively FTL+)

1 year

Speed = 1300913062.84929c or 1.3 billion c (Massively FTL+)

Escape Velocity

Description: Escape Velocities for various celestial objects.

Requirements: The object must be launched from the surface of the celestial object such that it never returns to it on its own (escapes far into space). Does not apply to flying objects.

Results:

Escape velocity of Earth

Using the Escape Velocity equation = V(escape) = sqrt[2*G*Mass/radius]

  • Mass of Earth = 5.972e24kg
  • Radius of Earth = 6371km, or 6371000m
  • G = 6.67408e−11 m^3/(kg*(s^2)
  • V(escape) = sqrt[2*[6.67408e−11]*[5.972e24 kg]/[6371000m]] = 11185.8m/s, or ~11.2km/s

Escape velocity of a planet 10 times the size of Earth but with the same density

  • Radius of Planet = [6371*10]km, or 63710000m
  • Volume of Planet = [4/3]*[Pi]*[[Radius = 63710000]^3] = 1.0832e24m^3
  • Density of Planet = 5510kg/m^3
  • Mass = Volume x Density = [1.0832e24m^3]*[5510kg/m^3] = 5.9685e27kg
  • G = 6.67408e−11 m^3/(kg*(s^2)** V(escape) = sqrt[2*[6.67408e−11]*[5.9685e27kg]/[63710000m]] = 111825m/s, or ~111.2km/s

What you need to know here is that the surface escape velocity increases in direct proportion to said planet's diameter.

  • Since the size of the planet increased by a factor of 10, the surface escape velocity of the planet would increase by a factor of 10.

Escape velocity of a planet 10 times denser than Earth but with the same volume

  • Radius of Planet = [6371]km, or 6371000m
  • Volume of Planet = [4/3]*[Pi]*[[Radius = 6371000]^3] = 1.0832e21m^3
  • Density of Planet = 55100kg/m^3
  • Mass = Volume x Density = [1.0832e21m^3]*[55100kg/m^3] = 5.96843e25kg
  • G = 6.67408e−11 m^3/(kg*(s^2)
  • V(escape) = sqrt[2*[6.67408e−11]*[5.96843e25kg]/[6371000m]] = 35362m/s, or ~35.362km/s

What you need to know here is that the surface escape velocity increases at the sqrt [density increase] of said planet.

  • Since the density of the planet increased by a factor of 10, the surface escape velocity of the planet would increase by a factor of sqrt[10].

List of escape velocities

In this table, the left-hand half gives the escape velocity from the visible surface (which may be gaseous as with Jupiter for example), relative to the center of the planet or moon (that is, not relative to its moving surface). In the right-hand half, Ve refers to the speed relative to the central body (for example the sun), whereas Vte is the speed (at the visible surface of the smaller body) relative to the smaller body (planet or moon).

Location Relative to Ve (km/s) Location Relative to Ve (km/s) System escape, Vte (km/s)
On the Sun The Sun's gravity 617.5
On Mercury Mercury's gravity 4.25 At Mercury The Sun's gravity ~ 67.7 ~ 20.3
On Venus Venus's gravity 10.36 At Venus The Sun's gravity 49.5 17.8
On Earth Earth's gravity 11.186 At Earth The Sun's gravity 42.1 16.6
On the Moon The Moon's gravity 2.38 At the Moon The Earth's gravity 1.4 2.42
On Mars Mars' gravity 5.03 At Mars The Sun's gravity 34.1 11.2
On Ceres Ceres's gravity 0.51 At Ceres The Sun's gravity 25.3 7.4
On Jupiter Jupiter's gravity 60.20 At Jupiter The Sun's gravity 18.5 60.4
On Io Io's gravity 2.558 At Io Jupiter's gravity 24.5 7.6
On Europa Europa's gravity 2.025 At Europa Jupiter's gravity 19.4 6.0
On Ganymede Ganymede's gravity 2.741 At Ganymede Jupiter's gravity 15.4 5.3
On Callisto Callisto's gravity 2.440 At Callisto Jupiter's gravity 11.6 4.2
On Saturn Saturn's gravity 36.09 At Saturn The Sun's gravity 13.6 36.3
On Titan Titan's gravity 2.639 At Titan Saturn's gravity 7.8 3.5
On Uranus Uranus' gravity 21.38 At Uranus The Sun's gravity 9.6 21.5
On Neptune Neptune's gravity 23.56 At Neptune The Sun's gravity 7.7 23.7
On Triton Triton's gravity 1.455 At Triton Neptune's gravity 6.2 2.33
On Pluto Pluto's gravity 1.23 At Pluto The Sun's gravity ~ 6.6 ~ 2.3
At Solar System galactic radius The Milky Way's gravity 492–594
On the event horizon A black hole's gravity 299,792.458 (speed of light)

The last two columns will depend precisely where in orbit escape velocity is reached, as the orbits are not exactly circular (particularly Mercury and Pluto).

Speed Needed to Light Your Clothes on Fire

Description: How fast one needs to run to set their clothes on fire.

Requirements: The character has to wear regular clothes and they must start burning.

Results: 2,500 km/h (Supersonic)

Calculation: Taken from this source...

That’s the temperature to completely incinerate your entire body – your clothes will catch fire long before you reach that point. Nylon has an ignition point of about 500°C and wool will catch fire at 230°C. Which means that with the right attire, you could trot along at a leisurely 2,500 km/h and still burst into flames. 2,500 km/h (Supersonic)

Speed Needed to Break the Sound Barrier

Description: The speed needed to break the sound barrier.

Requirements: The 343 m/s value applies to regular small objects. The 1000 km/h value is for the speed of the airflow around aircrafts.

Results/Calculation: In dry air at 20 °C (68 °F), the speed of sound is 343 meters per second (about 767 mph, 1234 km/h or 1,125 ft/s)

From page 13 of the "Me 262 A-1 Pilot's Handbook" issued by Headquarters Air Materiel Command, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio as Report No. F-SU-1111-ND on January 10, 1946:

Speed Needed to Cause a Sonic Boom audible from the ground

Description: Speed needed for an aircraft to cause a sonic boom that can be heard from the ground.

Requirements: The object in question has to be flying at least 9100m above the ground and cause a sonic boom heard on the ground.

Results: Mach 1.12

Calculation: The speed of sound, a critical speed known as Mach 1, is approximately 1,235 km/h (767 mph) at sea level and 20 °C (68 °F).

Depending on the aircraft's altitude, sonic booms reach the ground 2 to 60 seconds after flyover. However, not all booms are heard at ground level. The speed of sound at any altitude is a function of air temperature. A decrease or increase in temperature results in a corresponding decrease or increase in sound speed. Under standard atmospheric conditions, air temperature decreases with increased altitude. For example, when sea-level temperature is 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 °C), the temperature at 30,000 feet (9,100 m) drops to minus 49 degrees Fahrenheit (−45 °C). This temperature gradient helps bend the sound waves upward. Therefore, for a boom to reach the ground, the aircraft speed relative to the ground must be greater than the speed of sound at the ground. For example, the speed of sound at 30,000 feet (9,100 m) is about 670 miles per hour (1,080 km/h), but an aircraft must travel at least 750 miles per hour (1,210 km/h) (Mach 1.12) for a boom to be heard on the ground.

Typical fighting stats

Typical fighting stats - punching

Some punching speed - Source 1

Some punching speed - Source 2

Normal human punching speed (scaled to punching speed of a normal researcher) = 15 miles per hour = 6.7056 m/s (Average human)

Athletic human punching speed (scaling to average punching speed of Hatton) = 25 mph = 11.176 m/s (Peak human)

Some low-end peak human punching speed (scaling to peak punching speed of Hatton) = 32 mph = 14.30528 m/s (Superhuman)

A higher peak human punching speed (scaling to peak punching speed of Keith Liddell) = 44 mph = 19.66976 m/s (Superhuman)

A higher peak human punching speed (scaling to peak punching speed of Keith Liddell) = 45 mph = 20.1168 m/s (Superhuman)

Typical fighting stats - sword striking

Some sword striking speed - Source 1

Some sword striking speed - Source 2

Some sword striking speed - Source 3

Athletic human sword slashing speed (single strike by engineer Sean Franklin) = 70 km/h ~= 19.4444 m/s (Superhuman)

Peak human sword stabbing speed (single strike by ajslim @quarte-riposte.com) = 80 mph ~= 35.7632 m/s (Subsonic)

Peak athletic human sword slashing speed (single strike by Isao Machii) =
At least 158.29 km/h ~= 43.96944444 m/s (Subsonic)
Possibly 350 km/h ~= 97.22222222 m/s (Subsonic)

Typical fighting stats - knife throwing

Some knife throwing speed - Source 1

Some knife throwing speed - Source 2

Low end athletic human knife throwing speed = 26 mph = 41.842944 kph = 11.62304 m/s (Peak Human)

High end athletic human knife throwing speed = 30 mph = 48.28032 kph = 13.4112 m/s (Superhuman)

Low end peak human knife throwing speed = 33.88958482 mph = 54.54 kph = 15.15 m/s (Superhuman)

Mid end peak human knife throwing speed = 35.79098067 mph = 57.6 kph = 16 m/s (Superhuman)

High end peak human knife throwing speed = 37.69237652 mph = 60.66 kph = 16.85 m/s (Superhuman)

Typical fighting stats - baseball throwing

Baseball travel speed - Source from Guinness

Peak human baseball throwing speed = 105.1 mph = 169.1420544 kph = 46.983904 m/s (Subsonic)

Typical fighting stats - baseball batting

Baseball bat swinging speed - Source from Quora

"Average" professional baseballer bat swinging speed =
(Low tier) 70 mph = 31.2928 m/s (Superhuman+)
(Mid tier) 75 mph = 33.528 m/s (Superhuman+)
(High tier) 80 mph = 35.7632 m/s (Subsonic)

Baseball bat swinging speed - Source from Guinness

Peak human baseball bat swinging speed = 108.1185874 mph = 174 kph = 48.33333333 m/s (Subsonic)

Typical fighting stats - gun quick drawing and shooting

This site says:

Average shooter can fire Colt Model 1911 bullets at 70-85 rounds per minute, i.e. 0.857142857 second/round to 0.705882353 second/round. ("Below average human" perception)

Average "enthusiastic shooter" can fire Colt Model 1911 bullets at 120-180 rounds per minute, i.e. 0.5 second/round to 0.3333 second/round. ("Below average human" perception)

Expert speed-shooters can go 420-430 rounds per minute, i.e. 0.142857143 second/round to 0.139534884 second/round. (Normal Human+ perception)

Jerry Miculek himself emptied a five-shot revolver in 0.57 seconds in a group the size of a playing card, making the firing frequency 0.114 second/round (Athletic human perception).

For extended shots, he also did fire 27 rounds through a 9mm version of the 1911 in just 3.7 seconds or about 0.137037 second/round (Normal Human+ perception). This is for extended pistol trigger pulling.

Bob Munden Fastest Quick Draw (Shooting 2 target 6 feet apart within 1/10 second)

Peak human gun drawing speed = 1/20 second/round (Superhuman perception)

He himself claimed that he can shoot at within 2/100 sec/round (Subsonic perception) but that is unsupported by scientific recording.

Other real life statistics

Other real life statistics - Faster than Eye

An MIT findings says:

In the past, normal humans are perceived to perceive images in 1/10 second. (Peak Human perception)

A 2014 finding says peak humans are able to perceive images in 13/1000 second. (Subsonic perception)

Another unsupported research claims that

UK Air force pilots were able to recognize an image of a plane that was flashed on screen for as little as 1/220th of a second. (Subsonic+ perception)

Note: It has been decided that none of those values should be used for calculations regarding faster than eye speed feats.

Other real life statistics - Walking

Wikipedia says. Typical average walking speed is 1.4 m/s and hastier average walking speed reaches 2.5 m/s. Scales to every character who runs as fast as a human can walk (mostly small-sized characters), e.g. coconut crab. Also useful on calculating cinematic time.

Other real life statistics - Typing

Typing speed of an average human is 40 wpm or 200 characters per minute, i.e. 3.33 key strikes per second (ks/s) (Below average human perception)

Typing speed of professional typists reach 60 to 75 wpm or 300 to 375 characters per minute, i.e. 5 ks/s to 6.25 ks/s (Average human perception)

Here says:

The highest typing speed ever recorded was 216 wpm (1080 characters per minute or 18 ks/s, Superhuman), set by Stella Pajunas in 1946, using an IBM electric typewriter.

Currently, the fastest English language typist is Barbara Blackburn, who reached a peak typing speed of 212 wpm (1060 characters per minute or 17.66666667 ks/s, Peak human+) during a test in 2005, using a Dvorak simplified keyboard.

Here says:

It takes 0.25 N ~ 1.5 N for a keyboard strike.

Assume 1 cm travel distance to make a complete strike,

Energy to press a key/button:
Low end: = 0.25 * 0.01 = 0.0025 J (Below average human)
High end: = 1.5 * 0.01 = 0.015 J (Below average human)

Lifting strength (in kg on earth):
Low end: 0.0025 / 9.81 = 0.000254842 kg = 0.254842 gram (Below average human)
High end: 0.001529052 / 9.81 = 0.001529051988 kg = 1.529051988 gram (Below average human)

Use for enemies that can be defeated by literally pressing a button. Or, for giant-/mini- sized monster rescaling calculations.

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